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15. Who Were the Jaets?

17. The Qi Dan People

On the Trail of the Danes - in Asia

16. A brief History of Denmark

1. Mythological Time 2. Outline of Denmark
3. Denmark Unites 4. The Viking Age
5. The Middle Age 6. Swedish Wars
7. The England Wars 8. Slesvig Wars
9. The Sound Due 10. The Present
11. The Slaws 12. Literature

1. Mythological Time

Odin was the ruler of the Asia men, who settled on the island of Fyn. He was a great army man, Snorri wrote.

Thus Snorre lists Odin's ancestors: "His famous ancestor was Thror, whom we call Thor, his son was Loridi, his son was Ejnridi, his son Vingethor, his son Vingener, his son Moda, his son Magni, his son Seskef, his son Bedvig, his son Atra, his son Itrmann, his son Heremod, his son Skjaldun, who is called Skjold (Shield), his son Bjaf, his son Jat, his son Gudolf, his son Finn, his son Frallaf and he had the son Vodin, who was Odin."

The Royal family on the balcony of the castle Amalienborg

The Royal family on the balcony of the castle. - The Danish kings and Queen Margrethe are directly descended from the Aesirs.

Here we are actually told that Odin is descended from Thor. It's the opposite world! In the rest of the Norse mythology Thor is the son of Odin!

It is because that "Odin" was originally a title, not a name.

In another Indo-European language, Russian, the word odin means the number one. Something similar it may also have meant in the Danes original East Indo-European language. Odin meant the supreme leader, the first, number one. It can be Odin, the nameless, the greatest among gods; It can mean Odin, the All Father, the ultimate, original ancestor. But it can also mean Odin, the leader of the Danes, who was the king and commander, who settled on the island of Fyn and gave name to the city of Odense. Odin was a title, a kind of king. This may be why, very few personal names contained the word "Odin".

Odin on Sleipner

Odin, the leader of the Gods, on his eigth-legged horse, Sleipner - Icelandic drawing from the ninteenth century.

This last Vodin was "Odin", namely king and the leader of the men from Asia, who settled on Fyn. His family tree shows that he was the rightful "Odin", as he actually descended from the Gods. Such as the Danish kings still do also today. The Queen Margrethe and the crown prince Frederik are descended directly from the Aesir kings from the Middle World, and it gives them the right to the throne - and the duty.

This Odin, the leader and supreme military commander of the Aesirs, should not be confused with Odin, the leader of the Gods, or Odin, the Allfather, the first and original ancestor.

Saxo tells, how the Danish king Frode came into confrontation to the Huns. Frodes Norwegian scout and close adviser, Erik, revealed that Frode's Hunnish queen was cheating her husband. She was apparently quite difficult to control. Frode repudiated her and thus arosed the anger of the powerful king Hun of the Huns. All the Gothic and Slawish kingdoms around the Baltic then learned, that the Huns would use this excuse to subjugate also this part of the world. Two years had king Hun devoted to his preparations for the campaign, it was known.

Saxo Grammaticus skrev Gesta Danorum

Saxo Grammaticus wrote Gesta Danorum, which means the Feats of the Danes.

In their distress the Gothic and Vendish kingdoms turned to the Danes, asking them to be in charge of them all in the fateful war that would come. It was known that the Danes were great warriors. Furthermore, the kings of the Danes descended directly from the Gods in Asgard.

First, the Danes and their allies beated the enemy fleet. Saxo tells that the enemy, "the Ruthenians", (Russians, it is said), more had their strength in numeric abundance than in bravery, and the small band of heavy-handed Danes were victorious. When king Frode's ships should sail home, they encountered an unprecedented obstacle. The sea was littered with corpses and bits of shields and spears. Against the land army of the Huns king Frode used the scorched earth tactic, Saxo says. Only after the Huns had been weakened, split and divided, king Frode took up battle against the ancient enemy. When the fighting had lasted for seven days, king Hun was killed in battle, and the rest of the Huns surrendered. So far as one in three days could ride, the ground was littered with corpses.

Beowulf is received at the Danish court

Beowulf is received at the Danish court.

Helmold of Bosau used in his Slaw Chronicle in general the term Danes (Danorum, Dani and other inflected forms) to describe the peoples, who live in Denmark.

But in his opening chapter about the differences between the Slaws he writes: "The Hungarian people were once exceedingly brave, energetic warriors, feared even by the Roman Empire. For after the Huns and the Danes had raged, the Hungarians broke rampaging in and crushed and torn to bits and pieces all neighbouring kingdoms". ("Ungarica gens validissima quondam et in armis strennua, ipsi etiam Romano imperio formidolosa. Nam post Hunorum atque Danorum strages tercia Ungarorum desevit irruptio, omnia finitima regna vastans atque collidens.")

Helmond seems in this context to understand the term Danes as a collective term for all migratory peoples, who were not Huns.

2. The Outline of a Country Named Denmark Shows up

The outline of a country called Denmark emerges in history thanks to Ottar and Wulfstan's travel reports from maybe about 850 AC to very latest 899 AC. Ottar traveled from Skiringssal in Norway to Hedeby in Slesvig, and Wulfstan traveled from Hedeby to the merchant town Truso in the Vistula delta.

Ottars travel report says:

"Ottar said: South of Skiringssal a vast sea intersects into the country. It is wider than any man can see over. And on the other side first comes Gotland and then Sillende. This sea stretches hundreds of miles into the country.

And he told that he in five days sailed from Skiringssal to the merchant city, called Hedeby. It lies between the Slaws, Saxons and Angles, and belongs to the Danes.

When he sailed to there from Skiringssal, he had to portside Denmark, to starboard the open sea for three days, and then, two days before he came to Hedeby, he had to starboard Gotland and Sillende and many islands. In these regions the Angles lived before they came to this country. And in those two days he had to portside those islands which belong to Denmark."

Ottar's and Wulfstan's journeys following kong Alfred's Osorius

Ottar's and Wulfstan's journeys about 850 AC to 900 AC following king Alfred's Osorius.

It is obvious that Ottar sailed south from Norway for three days first with Halland and later Sjaelland to portside and the waters of Skagerak and Kattegat to starboard. Having rounded the peninsula Roesnaes, he sailed out on the sea to the south-west and soon he got sight of land, which was the characteristic cliff of Fyens Hoved, which was part of, what he called Gotland.

Then he sailed south having Fyn to starboard and with "the islands which belong to Denmark" to portside. The strait between the islands Langeland and Aeroe is quite shallow, and it must have been even more shallow a thousand years ago, therefore I think, he went on sailing with Aeroe to portside. Then "the islands which belong to Denmark" will be Langeland and Aeroe, noting that they are in plural. "He had to his starboard Gotland and Sillende and many islands", i.e. the Funen archipelago and behind, what he called Gotland.

After passing the western tip of Aeroe, he would have land in sight that is Als, which he called Sillende, since only locals would know that Als is an island.

Lille Belt at Fredericia, Strib and Middelfart

Lille Belt at Fredericia, Strib and Middelfart - It looks like the mouth of a river.

He then sailed south with Als and Slesvig to starboard, passed Flensburg Fjord and found the entrance to the narrow Slien fjord, and he went through this to Hedeby. Here he had the county Angel to starboard, as he said.

Now most will probably argue that the term Gotland meant Jutland, and he therefore went down through the Lille Belt.

For this, I would answer that it is not certain that the name Gotland meant Jutland. Moreover, the narrow part of the Little Belt at the cities Strib and Middelfart most of all looks like a river mouth. Which captain would take his ship with a precious cargo that route if not necessary? Further, it is not a shortcut. Eventually, if he went down through the sound Lille Belt, he would not have had "many islands" to his starboard.

Wulfstan's travel report says:

"Wulfstan said that he traveled from Hedeby and that he was in Truso in seven days and nights, and the ship went all the way under sail.

Slawland was on his starboard side and to portside, he had Langeland, Lolland, Falster and Scania. These countries all belong to Denmark.

So we had Bornholm to port, and they have their own king.

So after Bornholm, we had the countries named first Blekinge, Moere, Oeland and Gotland to portside, and these countries belong to the Swedish.

And we had Slawland to starboard all the way to the Vistula river mouth. Wistula is a very big river that separates Witland from Slawland. Witland belongs to the Estonians."

A knar, a type of ship from the Viking Age

A knar, a type of ship from the Viking Age, well suited for transport of commodities.

Ottar and Wulfstan's reports have different characteristics. Ottars report is a navigation description, a sort of algorithm, which describes how to sail along this and that coast having it to the port or starboard. Wulfstan is more the experienced sailor, standing at the railing, pointing toward the horizon and says that out there lies Blekinge, Moere, Oeland and Gotland, though he cannot not see these countries from his route along the coast of Slawland.

But Wulfstan confirms that Langeland, Lolland, Falster and Scania all belonged to Denmark, but not Blekinge and Bornholm.

3. Denmark Unites

The little rune stone in Jelling was raised by king Gorm den Gamle. It says: "Gorm king made this runes after Thyra his wife, Denmark's beauty." Thyra must have been a princess from Denmark, as she is referred to as Denmark's beauty and the Jelling monarchy was originally not Denmark.
The big Jelling rune stone

The big Jelling rune stone.

Around the year 965 AC Gorm's son, king Harald Bluetooth, erected the big rune stones in Jelling. The inscription reads: "King Harald made do these runes after Gorm his father and Thyra his mother - that Harald who won for himself all Denmark and Norway and made the Danes Christians."

The stone says that king Harald of the Jutland and Funen kingdom also won supremacy in Denmark, which then consisted of Halland, Scania, Zealand, a number of other islands and Hedeby. Harald also mentions his mother Thyra.

Denmark, with its capital in Lejre on Zealand was an old and glorious kingdom, which enjoyed great prestige. However the Jutland newcomer, Harald Bluetooth, succeeded to become king of Denmark, by referring to his mother, who was of royal Danish blood. Maybe also a little military persuasion has ben necessary, the reports do not tell.

During the reigns of Harald Bluetooth, his son Svein Forkbeard and his son Cnut the Great a fantatic activity was sparked in the now united kingdom. The defence dyke, Dannevirke, in Slesvig was reinforced, all over the country the very charateristic circular fortresses Trelleborg on Sjaelland, Aggersborg and Fyrkat in Jylland, Nonnebakken on Fyn and another Trelleborg in Scania. In addition, the fortress Jomsborg was built in Slawland near the mouth of the river Oder. This stronghold was the home of an elite military force, the Joms-Vikings. During the reign of Harald Bluetooth a 760 m. long and 5 m. wide wooden bridge was built over the Vejle River Valley at Ravning Enge.

Trelleborg on Sjaelland A segment of the Ravning Enge bridge

Left: Trelleborg on Sjaelland - one of five circular Viking fortesses built during the reign of Harald Bluetooth and Svend Forkbeard.

Right: A segment of the Ravning Meadows bridge. - with its length of 760 m. the bridge was not passed before the building of the first bridge over Lille Belt in 1935. The Ravning bridge was constructed of segments and had a uniform building throughout its length. The bridge spans are located between supporting bars with a spacing of 2.4 meters. Each set of supports consists of 4 large vertical poles. The roadway had a width of almost 5 meters

Adam of Bremen wrote about Harald Bluetooth's death: "In Harald's last days the Danes revolted against the king, under leadership of his son Svend." Harald took refuge in Jomsborg, which Adam of Bremen described as the most important trading city in Slawland, founded by Harald Bluetooth himself. Here he died from his wounds. His corpse was brought to Denmark, and he was buried in the Holy Trinity Church, which he himself had built, in Roskilde.

Note that he was not laid to rest in Jelling as his parents. Now it was namely a real Danish king, who had died, and he was buried in the original Denmark.

Fyn

The island of Fyn.

In many ways it can be proved that Jutland-Fyn and Zealand-Scania originally have been organized differently. It includes the ancient Jutland syssel-division, the early division of bishop areas and the distribution of kongelev and patrimonium.

The medieval Danish kings had two kinds of possessions, namely the property that belonged to the royal office (kongelev) and the royal family's inherited land (patrimonium). On the basis of Valdemar's Jordebog (an ancient journal of real estate ownership) the locations of the two kinds of possessions have been plotted. On the island of Fyn the patrimonium of the royal family was most dense, but also with high density in East Jutland and Slesvig. The real estates belonging to the royal office were scattered all over the country, but with highest density East of Store Belt.

Hence one can conclude that primarily Fyn, Slesvig and East Jutland was the royal family's original homeland, however they took over the eastern Danish areas as an intact (Danish) kingdom inclusive the the royal kongelev, which belonged to that kingdom.

Heimskringla by Snorre Sturlason

Heimskringla by Snorre Sturlason

The historical sources for the Viking Age and the time before have to be found in the works of Snorre, Saxo, Aggesen and in monestary chronicles and many other scattered notes from all over Europe, and they contradict very often each other. We must face that it is very difficult to achieve sure knowledge, before someone invents a time machine.

Snorre Sturluson told that the Aesirs came from Asia. The Asia-men he called them. Their leader was Odin. It is obvious to assume that they settled on Fyn and gave name to the city of Odense.

The Danish kings after Gorm the Old descend all from "Hardegon, son of a certain Sven", as Adam of Bremen expresses. He conquered much of Jutland around the year 917. He probably came from the Vikinge area of England.

King Gorm managed to marry a Danish princess from the ancient Skjoldunge (Shield Cub) lineage in Lejre. It was his hope that his sons thereby could be entitled to the distinguished Danish throne. Therefore he called his firstborn son Cnut Dana-ast. It is easy to see that it means Cnut dana - as - kin (Kin means Aet in old danish). Dana from his mother and As from his father's kin.

Since Thyra enjoyed such a prominent role, it seems logical that the firstborn son got a name from the father's lineage, namely Canute or Cnut, as the Englishmen write it, the second son received a name from his mother's lineage, namely Harald; think about the ancient king Harald Hildetand, Klak Harald and others. But as we all know, it happened so that the eldest son was killed during a viking raid in Ireland or England, and the second son became king.

One can hear ethnic englishmen complain that the Scots, Welsh and Irishmen are assigned a number of good qualities as etnic groups, while an ethnic englishman is only a blank sheet. Welsh belong to the original uncorrupted natives of the British Isles, the Irish are cheerful and musical, the Scots are brave, robust and thrifty, but the ethnic English are just some "english bastards". It's because it was the English, who won. It is from them the power emanates, and in order to win the loyalty of the subdued peoples it was necessary to assure them that they also had many good qualities.

So it was in Denmark. Saxo flows over with praises of the bravery of the Zealand inhabitans, and we must constantly listen to that the Jutlanders are strong and tough, but about the men from Funen, there is a strange silence. It is because, from the very beginning the power radiated from the island of Fyn.

4. The Viking Age

The armies, which Svein Forkbeard led out against England in 1013, was recruited from the whole of the reign of the Danes. Danes, Goths and Slaws from the whole Baltic region and Scandinavia took part. Far up in Sweden runestones have been erected for men, who received Danegeld in England with Cnut, the son and successor of Svend.

Cnut the Great in medieval English document The kingdoms of Cnut the Great.

Left: Cnut the Great in medieval English handwritten document.
Right: The kingdoms of Cnut the Great.

However, England was lost just as fast, as it was taken. Already in 1042 an english king, Edward the Confessor, was elected.

Also in 1042 the newly converted Danes chose Magnus, son of the new Catholic saint Olav, as a king. He was by then already king of Norway. This sparked five years of civil war, as he was challenged by Svend, who was the son of Cnut the Great's sister, Estrid, and thus a member of the ancient Danish royal lineage.

The Oseberg vikingship from Norway Coin with a portrait of Cnut the Great

Left: The Oseberg vikingeship from Norway.
Right: Coin with a portrait of Cnut the Great - made in the city of Lund during his reign.

In 1043 Magnus won the love of the Jutlanders by stopping a Slaw army, which plundered in Jutland. The new king, Magnus, defeated the Slaws in the battle of Lyrskov Hede with a Danish-Norwegian army. It is said that it was because of this victory that he won his byname "the Good".

The battle on Lyrskov Heath is not mentioned in Helmold of Bosau's Slaw Chronicle, though it should have taken place not far from his hometown Lubeck, only a hundred years before his time. There ought to have been old men, who could tell him anecdotes about the famous battle.

Helmold of Bosau was a priest and history writer in Lubeck, born ca. 1120 and died ca. 1180.

5. The Middle Age

The reign of Magnus the Good gave notice of the long lasting periods of chaos and civil wars, which played out through the whole Middle Age.

The killing of Cnut the Holy in the church of Odense - painting by Christian Albrecht von Benzon.

The killing of Knud the Holy in the church of Odense 1086 - painting by Christian Albrecht von Benzon 1843.

The chaos started in the reign of Magnus in 1042 and continued through most of the reigns of Svend Estridsen and his sons until the time of Valdemar the Great in 1157. Svend Estridsen sons seemed politically split in two parties, but the exact content of their disagreement is not known.

When king Niels' son Magnus killed Knud Lavard in Haraldsted Forest in 1134, it triggered an open civil war, which largely continued until Valdemar had defeated his rivals, Svend and Knud.

With small breaks in between the period of unrest and civil war continued in fifty years, until finally all Danes supported King Valdemar the Great in 1157. He and his successors expanded the Danish kings reign along the shores of the Baltic Sea.

The ruins of the fortress of Hammershus on the northern point of the island Bornholm Stubberup Village church on Hindsholm of the island of Funen

Left: The ruins of the impressive fortress of Hammershus on the northern point of the island Bornholm - Hammershus was built by the archbishop, financed by the danish peasants contributions to the church around year 1200. Also the king had a fort on Bornholm, however smaller, located in the middle of the island named Lilleborg, but it was stormed and destroyed by the archbishop's armed men with big bloodshed in 1259.
Right: Stubberup Village church on Hindsholm at the island of Funen. - During the whole middle age, also in the periods of chaos and civil wars, numerous stone and boulder churches were erected.

Valdemar the Victorious often waged war in the land of the Slaws. He was at the head of an army of armored knights at the Battle of Bornhoved (1227), but to the detriment of the Danes he suffered defeat.

But already during the reign of Valdemar Sejr's son Erik Plovpenning the situation deteriorated again. Erik tried to improve the kingdom's finances, but he only got the contemptuous epithet, "Plovpenning", and later he was killed by his brother Abel, who became king, but quickly lost his life in an military expedition against the Frisians. In the reign of his little brother Cristoffer an open strife between king and church broke out, the king arrested the archbishop Jacob Erlandsen in 1259. Christoffer was reportedly killed by poison in the altar wine the same year, when he received the bread and wine representing Jesus flesh and blood from abbot Arnfast from the Ryd Monestary.

The kingdoms of the danish kings in the age of the Valdemars

The reign of Valdemar the Great and his successors from 1157.

King Erik Menved (1274-1319) temporarily regained influence in the Slaw territory by diplomatic means and by funding some popular knight tournaments.

He arrested in 1294 Archbishop Jens Grand for treason and threw him in a gloomy dungeon under Soborg Castle. Erik Menved created a brief interregnum in the chaos, which thereafter continued, until the Enthronement of Valdemar Atterdag in 1340 after the period without king.

We can only guess the basic cause or causes of the long lasting strife and civil wars. It may be that many newly converted Danes were very eager in their support of the Christian faith. The new Christians may have felt that they really belonged to the international community of Christians and the state of God much more, than they belonged to a heathen and old fashion concept about a danish people.

But there has always been a core in the Danish people, who remained loyal to their own culture, their fatherland, king and their history, also in the old days. They stood firm against the exstreme supporters of the new international values, and this contradiction was the cause of the chaos and civil war - we can imagine.

The hero Niels Ebbesen and his men make their escape

The hero Niels Ebbesen and his men make their escape after the killing of the bald count.

Under the Danish rule, the slaws along the southern coast of the Baltic began to develop their trade and their cities, which would become the Hanseatic cities.

But the Danish kings ran short of money. Their subjects were not very eager to pay taxes. The kings had to pawn their lands and islands one by one to the rich Holsten counts, and in 1332 Denmark was completely dissolved and there was not even a king anymore. It seems that many Danes did not want to pay taxes to the king and the state, but apparently they always paid their tithes to the church. At least many village churches as well as other churches were built in stone throughout the whole Middle Ages.

In the period without king the hero Niels Ebbesen sparked a rebellion by killing the Bald Count in 1340. A tough king of the ancient lineage named Valdemar rebuilt Denmark from oblivion, piece by piece.

The Scandinavian Kalmar Union - ruled by Margrete 1.

The scandinavian Kalmar Union - ruled by Margrete 1. and later Erik of Pommerania.

From 1388 to 1439 the three kingdoms Denmark, Norway and Sweden were united under Valdemars daughter Queen Margrete 1. and her successor Erik of Pomerania in the Union of Kalmar. She ruled an enormous empire stretching from the northern tip of Norway to Holstein and from the russian border in Finland to Greenland.

Her able successor Erik of Pomerania was elected as king of the Union, but after some years rejected by all the three kingdoms one by one, and thus the union effectively fell apart.

Eric was the grandson of Margrete's sister. He was son of Duke Vartislav of Pomerania, his original name was Bugislav.

The later Pope Pius 2. described Erik of Pomerania as follows: "Eric of Pomerania had a beautiful body, reddish yellow hair, a ruddy face and a long slim neck. - Alone, unaided and without touching the stirrups he jumped on a horse, and he draw the attention of all women, especially the empress, with the feeling of love's longing."

In his official correspondence he carried the title "Erik, by God's grace king of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, the Slaws and Goths, duke of Pomerania."

The duke of Slesvig and the count of Holstein had led open war against Denmark, and Erik wanted to incorporate these two provinces more effectively in the kingdom. However, they were supported by the Hanseatic League and partially of the German emperor, and Erik had little luck in the war, he initiated against them. The nobles in Sweden and Norway did not want to pay the taxes that were necessary to wage the war, which led to their rejection of Erik as king. Basicly, they wanted a king of the union, who was king only in name.

6. The Swedish Wars

The next more than three hundred years was the scene of numerous, bloody and bitter wars fought between Sweden and Denmark.

A Swedish peasant rebellion against the Danish union king opened The Union Wars 1434-1523 . After seven years of open war the Danish Kristian 1. was recognized as king of the Nordic Union in 1455.

Again a Swedish rebellion broke out in 1463, and a danish army was totaly beaten in 1471 in the battle of Brunkebjerg north of Stockholm, by a swedish army led by Sten Sture. However the Danish king Hans returned with an army of German mercenaries and won victory in the Battle of Rotebro also near Stockholm. Then he was recognized as king of Sweden.

Again in 1501 a swedish rebellion broke out, and the rebels seized the city of Stockholm. The Hanseatic city of Lubeck joined the fight against the Danes in 1510. However already in 1512 they had got enough and made peace.

The Stockholm blood bath.

The Stockholm blood bath. It must be Christian 2. who supports his head with his hand. - drawing of unknown origin

Again in 1517 a rebellion took place in Sweden; several danish armies were not able to quell the unrest. But king Christiern 2. succeded in 1520 to reestablish the Nordic union by military force. He seized the swedish capital Stockholm in 1520 with his army of Scottish and German mercenaries. Initially the swedish people seemed quite satisfied with the change. But then Christiern unwisely broke his promise of safe passage and accused 82 swedish noblemen for witchcraft and thereafter beheaded them. Even more fatal became his decision to collect heavy taxes from the common swedish people in order to make them pay for his expensive military campaign. A swedish uprising drove Christiern out of Sweden in 1523.

The Seven Year War 1563-1570 between Denmark and Sweden broke out because of a dispute about the right to have the three crowns (of the union) in the royal coat of arms. Initially a danish army seized the stronghold of Aelvsborg at Goteburg.

The danish and the swedish royal coat of arms.

Modern versions of the central shields of the danish and the Swedish royal coat of arms. Both shows the three crowns symbolizing the nordic union. In the danish shield they are shown in the lower left corner together with the symbols for Greenland and Faroe Islands. In the Swedish shield they are shown twice and take up half of the shield. In modern time it had been brought forward that the three swedish crowns symbolize the three original Swedish kingdoms Svealand, Eastern and Western Gotaland.

A danish navy fleet under Herluf Trolle won victory in a sea battle between Oland and Gotland. The experienced Danish general Rantzau routed a numerically superior Swedish army at Axtorna near Falkenberg in Halland. A peace was concluded by payment of a compensation of 150.000 daler to Denmark.

The Kalmar War 1611-1613 broke out because of a dispute about the rights to trade with Russia. Denmark was victorious in a battle near Kalmar. A peace was concluded and Denmarks right to the monopol in the Russia trade were confirmed.

As Duke of Holstein Christian 4. joined the Thirty Years War 1618-1648 between Catholics and Protestants in Germany. However, his Protestant army were almost annihilated in the battle at Lutter am Barenberg in 1626. The Swedish king Gustav Adolf then took over the role as the Protestant leader; the Swedes had greater success, as they were effectively supported by a France under Cardinal Richelieu.

Christian 4 's participation in the German war was the beginning of Denmark's historic downturn, that reached a low in 1864.

In The Thorsteinson war 1643-1645 it became really sinister. Holstein, Slesvig and the whole of Jylland was taken by swedish troops under general Thorsteinson and merciless plundered. Another Swedish army attacked Scania, but was defeated at Malmoe. Holland send a fleet to support Sweden, but it was destroyed by the danish navy at Lister Dyb. However the danish navy could not match a united Swedish-Dutch fleet at Fehmern, only two Danish ships came out of the battle. In the end a peace was concluded in Broemsebro and Denmark was forced to give away Gotland, Oesel, Halland and the Norwegian provinces Jemtland and Herjedalen.

Carl Gustav and the Swedish army go over the ice - painting by Johan Filip Lemke

Carl Gustav and the Swedish army go over the ice - painting by Johan Filip Lemke.

In The First Carl Gustav War 1657-1658 Denmark wanted to take back, what was lost. The Swedish were busy with war in Poland, and the chance should be there, we thought. However, "The Little Ice Age" had began. The winter turned out to be unusually cold, and all the the danish waters became totaly frozen. The Swedish king Carl Gustav lost any interest in Poland and turned immediately against Denmark. He and his veterans marched over the ice from island to island and soon they showed up in front of the walls of Copenhagen. The Danish troops were completely unprepared for this development and king Frederik 3. asked for peace negotiations. In the peace of Roskilde Denmark was forced to give away Scania, Blekinge, Bornholm and the Norwegian provinces Bohuslen and Trondheim. This war was a complete disaster, the lost parts of the kingdom all belonged to the original homelands of the Danes and Norwegians.

However Carl Gustav soon regretted that he did not wipe out Denmark-Norway completely, when he had the chance. Already after half a year he again opened a siege of Copenhagen and thus began The Second Carl Gustav War 1658-1660. The situation was desperate for the Danes; the city walls were manned with students and family fathers, the king Frederik 3. declared that he wanted to "die in his nest". However Holland turned their coat to support of the Danes; they sent a much needed rescue fleet to Copenhagen. A cold winterday in February 1659 the Swedish troops made their all out assault on the walls of the city. The attack failed completely, several thousands swedish soldiers lost their lives, while the danish losses were insignificant. A new peace was concluded and Norway got the Trondheim Len back and Denmark got the island of Bornholm back.

The battle at Lund in Scania - 1676

The battle at the city of Lund in Scania 1676 - In total there were 9,000 killed soldiers of which the 6,000 were danish. The Swedish were victorious thanks to their superior leadership of their cavalry.

But Denmark had lost some of her ancient land and were decided to take it back. Danish troops opened The Scanian War 1675-1679 by seizing Swedish cities in Northern Germany and the island of Gotland. The battle at the city of Lund in Scania was the most bloody ever fought between Swedes and Danes. In total 9,000 men lost their lives of which the 6,000 were Danes. The Swedish turned out victorious thanks to their superior leadership especialy of their cavalry. In a navy battle in Koege Bugt south of Copenhagen the Swedish navy were totally beaten by the danish navy led by admiral Niels Juul. The swedish lost 20 ships with 3,000 sailors; the losses of the Danish navy were a few hundreds. However France interfered and threatened to enter the war to support their Swedish ally. Denmark was then forced to give up all their conquest.

Tordenskjold ain Marstrand

Tordenskjold in Marstrand.

The Great Nordic War 1700-1720 lasted 20 years, however with a 9 years armistice in between. It was fougth all over, in the Swedish parts of Northern Germany the cities of Stralsund and Wismar were taken by the Danes and their Preussian and Russian allies. A Swedish army seized Kristiania (Oslo) in Norway, but they soon had to retreat as the Norwegian hero Tordenskjold had destroyed their supply fleet at Dynekilden. Swedish armies led by the warrior king Karl 12. attacked Norway in both north and south. However Karl 12. was shot during the siege of the fortress Frederiksten whereupon his soldiers lost their taste for war and retreated to Sweden. The bold hero Tordenskjold and his naval units took the Swedish stronghold Karlsten at Marstrand by cunning. He let his small force march in front of the Swedish position in such a way that the same soldiers showed up many times, which - according to legend - made the Swedish commander to believe that the Danish force was much larger, than it really was. Hence the term "Tordenskjolds soldiers" exampelwise about an association where the same persons only show up to all events.

The England Wars

The battle of Copenhagen - 1 The battle of Copenhagen 1801 - 2

Left: The battle of Copenhagen 1801. A Danish block ship in battle with an English warship - oil painting by Moelsted.
Right: The battle of Copenhagen - Lieutenant Willemoes was in command of block ship no. 1, which did great damage to the English ships - oilpainting by Molsted.

During the Napoleon Wars Denmark-Norway did their utmost to stay out of the fightings. Nevertheless we were attacked by the Englishmen in the Battle of Copenhagen - 1801 . Together with Russia, Sweden and Prussia Denmark formed a so-called armed neutrality pact. The intention was to support each other in the rights to trade with any country and anybody, regardless of the wars England led. This perceived the British as a threat, and therefore in 1801 they sent a large fleet to Copenhagen under Admiral Parker with Horatio Nelson as second in command in order to destroy or capture the Danish navy. Since it was so early on the year, the Danish ships were not rigged. The Danish defence was based on a line of block ships arranged outside the harbour of Copenhagen. The fight was fierce and in the end the British had to give up to penetrate the defence and make peace. The Danish losses were about 1,700 killed sailors, while the British had only a few hundred dead. A Swedish rescue force from Karlskrona did not arrive in time for the fight.

The bombardment of Copenhagen - painting by Lorenz Rugendas

The bombardment of Copenhagen in 1807- The British fleet were 24 navy ships, 22 smal ships and transport ships with in total 30,000 men, mostly Englishmen and Germans. - painting by Lorenz Rugendas.

Again until 1807 Denmark-Norway continued their efforts to stay out of the fightings. The army had taken position in Holstein in order to defend the country against Napoleon if neccessary; however Copenhagen was again attacked by the the Englishmen, who wanted to take in their possession the powerfull Danish navy, just in case. After a heavy Bombardment of Copenhagen - 1807 the crown prince, the later Frederik 6., decided to surrender. It was the first time in modern times that deliberate and targeted terror against the civilian population was used in warfare. It was a day of sorrow, when the englishmen sailed away with the navy. This unjustified english attack pushed Denmark-Norway to chose the side of the loosers in the rest of the Napoleon wars.

Following the loss of the navy a big quantity of gunboats were bulit in the port cities of Denmark and Norway. They were large rowing boats equipped with one or two guns. The gunboats were fast, flexible and independt of the wind direction. They attacked and boarded numerous British ships, and then ship and cargo were sold to the highest bidder.

Danish-Norwegian canonboats attack an English warship

Danish-Norwegian canonboats attack an English warship - oilpainting by Moelsted

In 1812 Napoleon attacked Russia, which then allied with Sweden and England. Russia promised the Swedes that after the war they should have Norway as a substitute for Finland. They also invited Denmark to take part in the anti-French alliance, but however made the pre-condition that we voluntarily ceded Norway to Sweden. This was of course refused and Denmark-Norway fought the rest of the war on French side.

By the peace-treaty of Kiel in 1814, the Danish king had to cede Norway to the Swedish King; Denmark was allowed to keep Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands.

However the Norwegians rebelled against their new Swedish masters and elected the Danish crown prince, Christian, as Norwegian king. But the Norwegian resistance was quickly defeated by Swedish troops.

8. The Slesvig Wars

In 1849 Denmark changed the government system to democracy. The new democratic politicans came to power already in 1848 and they represented an uncompromising nationalistic policy.

The Duchies Slesvig and Holsten

The Duchies Slesvig and Holsten.

The duchies of Slesvig and Holsten had been ruled by the Danish kings for several hundred years, they were a natural part of the Danish kingdom. However many of the inhabitans in Slesvig had taken up speaking German, perhaps because they found it more noble and more international. Holsten had allways been traditionally German.

Just in these years the German Romantic movement won great support in all the former states of present Germany. The meaning of this popular movement was precisely to gather all German-speaking people in one single great nation. "Deutchland uber Alles" (Germany above all) was their motto.

Among the German-speaking inhabitants of Slesvig and especially in Holsten, the idea spread, that they should be liberated completely from their historical connection to Denmark, achieve independence and in the long run be a part of a new large German-speaking Germany. In romantic circles in the German states it was regarded as something of a matter of course.

The German philologist Jacob Grimm, who was one of the driving forces in the Romantic Movement, wrote in his "Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache": "When the big federation has been formed, why should not the obstinate peninsula (Jutland) be added to the mainland - As soon as Germany reorganizes herself, Denmark may impossible excists as before."

It was such modern dreams that stirred up the mood in a large part of the predominantly german-speaking population in Holstein and in less degree in Slesvig.

It was the National Liberal Party that implemented the Danish Revolution in 1848. Their main program point was the Ejder policy, which means they wanted the whole of the Duchy of Slesvig incorporated in Denmark, while Holsten and Launborg were left for a future in the German Confederation. This policy was expressed in the slogan "Denmark to the (river) Ejder". The National Liberals also dominated the Provisional Government. This was cause for concern among the German-minded National Liberals in Kiel.

The Royal guard in battle at Isted 1850

The Royal guard in action in the battle at Isted 1850.

1848 was the great year of revolution in Europe. There were street battles in both Berlin, Vienna and Paris, and cries for freedom, equality and fraternity echoed in the streets. In contrast to other monarchs, Frederik 7. gave up quite suddenly and unconditionally to the Copenhagen protesters. In Kiel, it was believed that the revolutionary protesters in Copenhagen had taken the king hostage and that the Danish Monarchy in practice had ceased to exist. Therefore, they saw the opportunity to form a provisional government, which aimed to disassociate Slesvig and Holstein from Denmark and instead seek a future in the German Confederation. There had - most likely justified - hope for support from the Berlin government.

Led by the Prince of Noer, on March 24, 1848, the German-minded National Liberals conquered by surprise the fortress of Rendsborg with all its weapons and military supplies. Their demands were a democratic constitution for the two dukedoms, Sleswig's association with Holsten and the dukedoms' admission to the German Confederation. Thus, the First Slesvigian War 1848-1851 was declared, and volunteers from all over Germany flocked to support the German cause.

Prussia immediately came to their aid and sent an army of 32,000 men under the command of General Wrangel, who met a numerically inferior Danish force of 10,000 men at Slesvig led by Colonel Laesoe. The Danes made an organized fighting retreat to the island of Als, from which they later made several successful counter-attacks led by Colonel Schleppegrell.

In connection with the battle of Slesvig a Prussian army force was attacked near Husby by the Danish Sixth Dragoon Regiment, who captured their guns. A Prussian officer gave this description of the fight:

Colonel Schleppegrell in the battle of Isted, here he was killed in action. Squadron of 6. Dragonregiment in battle at Husby 1848

Left: General Schleppegrell in the battle of Isted, where he was killed in action.
Right: Sixth Danish Dragoon Regiment in battle at Husby 1848 - painting.

"In Schleswig, all fields and roads are lined with planted earth dikes, which here are called "Knicks". These living walls are often so high that you can not see a carriage behind them, and from such a fenced side road, which was directly in front of our shooters, flew suddenly a squadron of the Sixth Danish Dragoon Regiment forward, turned onto the main road and rushed straight away on our two battalions.

In front rode the Captain, his name was Wurtzens, then came four officers in a line, then the Danebrog banner and following the whole squadron, swinging swords high in the fastest gallop. They dusted, whistled and rattled as a whirlwind passing us on the road, and the shooters, who on the general's hint had saved themselves behind the hedges, did not have a thought of firing, but were really somewhat taken aback, as you call it. When they had come to their senses and realized that after the regulations and common sense, however, they ought to have been shooting, the Wild Hunt had stormed past and went straight on at Lieutenant Petzel's howitzers, which had just been arranged for transport in order to advance. These of course again had to be made ready for fight, but the Danish were already upon them, before it could happen.

The sortie from Fredericia - 1849

The sortie from Fredericia - 1849.

However did our shooters come to their senses and began to bombard the Danish in the back and in the side. Their banner sank, a young Danish officer, Mr. von Vedel, was taken prisoner. What came out of the whole chaos, rushed back at least as fast as they had come, but this time not without unpleasant side comments from our shooters behind the fences. Where ever you looked, were captured, killed and wounded, and when one had in mind with which courage and bravery the riders galloped forward to the attack, it made one extremely sorry that they got so badly away, because the attack was really the most beautiful, you could see, especially because the officers rode in front and themselves gave the best example. But the guns, yes - the Danish saved them, while we trembled for the dragoons."

The city of Fredericia was besieged by the Germans and Holsteiners. Thanks to the Danish superiority at sea it was possible to concentrate danish forces in the besieged city, make a sortie and defeat the enemies in the battle at Fredericia. In this battle the Norwegian-born general Olaf Rye was killed in action.

The troops return back to Copenhagen in 1851 after the First Slesvigian war

The troops return back to Copenhagen in 1851 after the First Slesvigian war.

In the battle of Isted 1850 the Holsteiners and their German supporters were finally defeated. In this battle 3,800 Danish soldiers and 2,800 enemies were killed. Among the dead were general Schleppegrell and colonel Laessoe.

The great powers, England, Russia, France, Austria and Prussia signed the London Protocol in 1852, which established the status quo. The duchies were still to be ruled by the Danish king, but they may not be connected together or connected closer to Denmark.

In November 1863 the danish parliament adopted the so-called November Constitution, which was a common constitution for Denmark and the Duchy of Schleswig, but however not for Holstein. Thus, Denmark had broken the London Protocol and opened the door for a German revenge in the Second War of Schleswig - 1864

German plan to bypass the Danevirke position Danevirke to day - 2010

Left: German plan to bypass the Danevirke position - The moors against west were frozen and the narrow fjord Slien could be passed by other means.
Right: Danevirke to day - 2010 - The first parts of the dike were built about 600 AC.

The Danish politicians' decisions were influenced by romantic dreams and wishful thinking. It was thought that we would get military assistance from Sweden-Norway, should it come to a war with the German states. Politicans imagined that other great powers would intervene in favor of Denmark. There was an exaggerated confidence in the capability of the Danish soldiers.

The democratic politicians had not made any significant military preparations or secured actual support from other great powers.

Under command of general de Meza the army had taken up positions at Dannevirke, a historic Danish defence dike against enemies from south. The dike was by the politicians and the general population considered as a safeguard against the Germans.

The truth was that the 40,000 Danish soldiers were too few to defend such a long position (approx. 25 km ex. moors and fjord). Furthermore, the marshes on the right flank were frozen, the narrow fjord was not yet frozen, but could be passed by other means. The position could be outflanked easily. The Danish soldiers were armed with old-fashioned muzzle-loaders, while the Prussians and Austrians had modern breech-loader rifles. The Danish guns were too few and small and had too short range.

The Germans crossed the river Eider 1. of February 1864. Their Germen confederation army consisted of 6,000 Saxons, 6,000 Hannoverans, 35,000 Prussians and 35,000 Austrians.

Most likely there was a reason why the Germans chose to attack in the assumed most cold time of the Year.

After a few outpost fightings it soon became clear that the Dannevirke position was untenable. The army would be surrounded and destroyed. The night before the Germans planned surrounding offensive were to be launched, the Danes quietly and successfully initiated the retreat from Dannevirke.

Dybb�l windmill after the final assault 18. of April 1864 - Prussian photo

The Dybboel windmill shot to pieces after the final assault 18 of April 1864 - Prussian photo.

The main force of the Danish army then went into position in a half-finished system of defence ramparts at Dybboel.

The politicians in Copenhagen were furious that de Meza had the army pulled back from the, according to their view, impregnable Dannevirke. De Meza was dismissed and replaced by General Gerlach.

The Prussians used the war against Denmark to test new forms of warfare. The Danish defenders were fixed in their shelters with a constant artillery bombardment, while their engineering troops digged trenches ever closer to the Danish positions.

It became increasingly clear that also the Dybboel position was untendable. The generals pleaded the politicians to be allowed to retreat and thus keeping the army fairly intact. It was every time rejected for political reasons.

On 18. of April came the final assault. A six-hour artillery bombardment shot the defenses to pieces, while the defenders suffered heavy casualties. Then the Prussians moved the artillery shelling further into the Danish hinterland, and a force of 12,000 attackers ran toward the southern danish defences, while Preussian military bands played from the trenches. The fight was tough but short, and before long the Danish units was fleeing.

Dybboel after the final attack the 18. of April 1864 - Prussian photo

Dybboel after the final attack the 18. of April 1864 - Prussian photo.

Only a bold counterattack from 8. Brigade made it possible to save most of the army down to a bridgehead at the tip of the Sundeved Peninsula. From there the remains of the Danish army were transferred to the island of Als.

However, in the middle of the night on 29. of June the Prussians invaded Als and quickly overcame the demoralized Danish defenders, who retreated to the island of Fyn.

At the peace in Vienna on 30. of October, Denmark had to give away the duchies of Slesvig, Holsten and Lauenburg to Prussia and Austria. Thus we lost almost 40% of our population and area. Denmark had become a tiny state of only 1.7 million inhabitants.

After the German defeat in World War I, the Versailles conference decided to give part of Slesvig back to Denmark in 1920 after a referendum.

9. The Sound Due

The king of the Nordic Kalmar Union Erik 7. of Pommern, introduced in 1429 the Sound Due, which all ships passing the narrow danish water of the Sound headed for the Baltic Sea or back had to pay. We don't know his motives, perhaps he wanted to finance the fight against pirates. He looked upon the Baltic as an inland sea in the reign of his Union of the three kingdoms. Or it was just common at this time that princes charged charges at suitable check points.

The sound due remained in effect through more than four hundred years until 1857. In all that time it was an significant income for the Danish kings. In some periods it could make up up to two thirds of the income of the crown. Fredensborg, Rosenborg and all other castles and other beautiful buildings erected by Christian 4. were financed by the Sound Due.

The size of the fee varied over time, but a typical payment was 1-2% of the cargo value.

Ships waiting to pay their due outside the castle of Kronborg at the city of Helsingoer

Ships waiting to pay their Sound due outside the castle of Kronborg at the city of Helsingoer

When we want to take a ship through the Panama or the Suez canals, we have to pay a fee, which is quite reasonable, as it had cost a lot of money to dig through such masses of land and rocks. But the Oeresund had so to say digged itself, the king of Denmark did not have any costs. All the payments collected were close to pure profit.

Some historians think that the Sound Due caused Denmark to miss important international support and good-will in critical moments of history, and this was one of the main reasons to the decline of the power of Denmark through history.

The Danish historian Palle Lauring wrote in his book "Denmark in Scania": "Oeresund, wonderfull Oeresund, The stream filled with herring, ships, money and blood. Here we during five hundred years squeezed money out of skippers from all over the world. In return we gave Scania, Halland, Blekinge, Gotland and Oesel. Additionally, what we generously delivered of Norwegian land. No matter to how much you will calculate the five centuries of customs revenues, it was a bad deal."

To this we can add a bit of alternate history. If Christian 4. had bought some canons and trained some soldiers for the money instead of building castles, the history could have been different.

10. The Present

Until mid the nineteenth century, the Danish king still ruled many countries and kingdoms, Schleswig-Holstein, Lauenburg, Norway, Iceland, Faroe Islands and Greenland.

In the Second World War Denmark was occupied by the Germans in five years. During that time we were unable to have contact with the North Atlantic parts of the kingdom, which were occupied by British and American troops. Under these circumstances Iceland decided in 1944 to achieve their independence from the kingdom of Denmark.

Only Margrethe 2. has finally abandoned the nominal ambitions to regain sovereignty over the Nordic and Baltic region. She has renounced the ancient title, "The Slaws and Goths." She is now monarch of the Kingdom Community, which consists of Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland.

Modern Denmark is what remains of the Danes reign, after Sweden, Norway, Finland and Iceland have separated, and the Slaw areas, Rugen, Fehmarn, Oesel, Gotland, Skaane, Halland, Blekinge, Estonia, Holstein, South-Slesvig and Launborg have been conquered by neighboring states.

Her subjects are the present Danes, who are descended from Gothic and other peoples, who have lived in the country "always" and the Aesirs, who came from Asia in ancient times.

The Eighth brigade's counterattack at Dybboel the 18. of April 1864. Painting by Vilhelm Rosenstand from 1894. Frederiksborg Museum.

The Eighth brigade's counterattack at Dybboel the 18. of April 1864. Painting by Vilhelm Rosenstand from 1894. Frederiksborg Museum.

11. The Slaws and Denmark

Mural showing Knud Lavard in Sct. Bendts Church in Ringsted

Mural showing Knud Lavard in Sct. Bendts Church in Ringsted.

The young man Godskalk addressed king Cnut the Great and asked for help, as the Saxons had killed his Slawish father knes (meaning Prince or king) Pribinev of Abodrits.

With Danish help, he returned and killed his enemy Ratibor, whom, we must believe, was supported by the Saxons. Godskalk married later a daughter of the danish king Svend Estridsen. He was killed in 1066 by knes Kruto of the Wagrians, another Slaw tribe, as a reaction against his attempt to Christianize the Slaws.

Map of Slawland

Map of the land of the Slaws showing different Slaw tribes and peoples.

Following Saxo the Slawish piracy against the Danish coasts escalated during the reign of king Niels. In connection with the choice of Knud Lavard as the border Earl of Slesvig it is told that the Slaws raveged the Danish coasts and in particular the area around the river Eider and Slesvig worser than before. Nobody dared to oppose the king of the Slaws, Henrik Godskalkson. This was the reason why the position as border earl in Slesvig stood vacant.

Knud Lavard offered personally king Niels to take over this perilous task. He spoke to king Niels: "You know best, whether I have produced results as a warrior. Danes! Cultivate just your land completely out to the coast, if you will! Place your houses so close to the water, as you please! And stay away from the waves yourselves! - For I will protect you against the pirates."

However, Knud Lavard was killed in Haraldsted Forest some years later.

Chaos in Denmark

Helmold's Slaw Chronicle says that the situation deteriorated further during the reign of Erik Lam: "For when Erik, called Erik Emune, was killed, there were three royal candidates left, namely Svend, son of the same Erik, and Valdemar Knudson and Svend Magnusson. But since they were still only children, it was on the assembly of Danes decided, that a certain Erik, called Erik Lam, should be their guardian. He was a peaceful man, and he would have ruled the country that was him trusted in calmness, if he had been able to resist the furious attacks of the Slaws. The attacks by Slawish robber gangs were at that time more numerous than usual. But when Eric noticed that the day for his death approached, he called on the three royal youths, and he called together a council of nobles and appointed Sven as king, and said that Valdemar and Knud had to be satisfied with their heritage from their fathers. And when he had arranged this, he died."
The blood party in Roskilde

The blood party in Roskilde - Svend invited his fellow kings Knud and Valdemar to a party in Roskilde. While they listened to a German singer, Svends men broke in and tried to kill his rivals. Knud was killed, but Valdemar escaped in the darkness and confusion.

During the period that followed seemed the raids of the Slaws to become increasingly worser to reach a peak during the civil war between Svend, Knud and Valdemar. Saxo wrote: "At this time, Denmark was a country in disintegration; at home the civil war raged, and from outside the pirate scourge reached new heights." According to Saxo, the country was on the verge of collapse: "At that time the pirates had free rein, and the whole way from Vendsyssel to the Eider all villages in eastern Jutland were abandoned and all fields uncultivated. In East as well as South Sjaelland was a desolate, deserted landscape. The peasants were gone, and in their place the robbers had settled, as if they were at home. On Fyn the pirates had left nothing but a small flock of inhabitants."

Helmold's Slaw Chronicle explains why: "The Danes are namely always plagued by domestic wars, and they have no power to lead wars abroad. For Svend, the king of the Danes, strengthened true enough his position in the kingdom by his lucky victories and by the emperor's authority, but he tormented his people cruelly, and therefore God avenged on him by giving his life an unhappy ending. For when Knud his rival, noticed how the people murmured against Svend, he called on Valdemar, who was Svend's cousin and assistant and connected with him by giving him his sister in marriage. And when he was certain that this man would help him, he renewed his vicious attacks on Svend."

Absalon destroys Svantevit

Svantevit were one of the Slaw's important gods. - Absalon destroys Svantevit after the conquest of Arkona - painting by Lauritz Tuxen.

Helmond also remarked: "Erik reigned in Denmark and begat a son named Svend with a mistress, Thunna. But Knud had also a son, the noble-borne Valdemar. And Magnus had his son Knud. These shoots of the royal lineage lived then among the Danish people and fought one another, lest they would one day should get out of habit and become arrogant. They are only worth something in their internal wars."

"But events unfolded so that Valdemar became the one king of Denmark. He overcame the Slaws on Rugen and later anywhere in Slawland in cooperation with Duke Henrik Loewe of Saxony. His son Knud 6. continued the raids against the land of the Slaws. There after the Slaws everywhere converted to Christianity, and their raids against the Danish coasts ceased.

The Slaws Make Havoc

It can not be explained away that the Slaws committed widespread piracy on the Danish coasts. Saxo tells it in abundance, but also they admit it themselves.

Radegast one of the Gods of the Slaws

Radegast was another of the most important gods of the Slaws. Statue in the Moravian Pustevny Mountains, created by sculptor Albin Polasek USA Academy of Art in Chicago. Foto Wikimedia Commons.

In Knes Pribislaw's speach to a Saxon bishop in 1157 he places the responsibilty for the piracy on the invading Saxons, who have forced the Slaw people to "turn their backs to the dry land, go to the sea and dwell and build on the waves. Is it our fault, that when we have been driven out from our native land, we are compelled to disturb the peace on sea and take our travel food from the Danes or the merchants who are sailing on the ocean? "(Helmold).

Pastor Helmold also wrote in the same chronicle around 1170: "Denmark consists in general of scattered islands surrounded by sea. They are difficult to protect against pirate attacks, because there are many peninsulas, which are well suited as hiding places for the Slaws."

Saxo is not blind to the fact that they probably had learned the piracy profession from the Vikings, he tells about the time of Harald Bluetooth and Sven Forkbeard "On that time was widespread piracy in this country, while it was rare among the Slaws. But it began to spread to them also, because the pirates in Julin cultivated the activity of their homeland on the homeland itself and harassed very most the Danes with the means, which they themselves had taught them."

Reconstruction of Slawish ship

Reconstruction of Slawish ship.

Most likely some will argue that all that with the havoc done by the Slaws only is political propaganda from Saxo supporting Valdemar the Great and Absalon to justify their imperialistic policy. But the pirates' lootings may also be supported by other arguments.

On Falster unusually many burried treasures have been found from this particular period. The owners had burried them in times of troubles, but have not been able to pick up their treasures after the unrest. Lymoseskatten contained silver and 393 coins from Germany and England. The silver treasure from Vaalse contained 6.5 kilogram of silver, such as coins, jewelry and broken silver. The treasure from Gundslevmagle contained among other things, a unique Byzantine silver cross.

Oem Monestary Chronicle notes that the bishop of Aarhus, Svend, gave large stretches of land in Jutland to the monastery, but that it was worthless because it was too close to the sea and was exposed to the heathen pirates' assault. The English bishop Thomas of Beckett's saint vita tells that Slaws had intercepted a gift for Valdemar from his father in law.

The island of Lyoe has quite excellent farmland and had been populaed since the stoneage, But Valdemar could hold his tragic hunting here, because the island was still uninhabited.

The Slaws in Denmark

Slaws have lived in Denmark, at least on the islands of Lolland, Falster and Moen, and most likely their descendants still live here. Even in modern times we have personal names of Slawic origin, for example Tove and Preben, Tove was the name of Svend Forkbeard's Slawish queen, and Preben comes from the Slawish Pritbior.

A rune stone in the cemetery of Tillitse Church

A rune stone in the cemetery of Tillitse Church - originally built into the church wall. It says: "Eskil Sulkeson let this stone erect after himself. Always it will stand, while the stone lives, this inscription which Eskil did. Christus and St. Mikkel help his soul." Moreover: "Toke made these runes after his stepmother Thora, a noble woman." On the stone is also a cross.
It contains four Nordic personal names and a clear Christian symbol. It may be erected by those, who lived there, before the Slaws came and gave the village their own Slawish name.
We love to imagine all sorts of harmonic and peaceful coexistence, but if there had been peaceful coexistence, then the newcomers would have respected the original Nordic name of the village.

On the island of Lolland many place have names of Slawic origin, Binnitse, Billitse, Krambes, Tillitse, Kuditse, Ulitse, Revitse, Vaagese, Glukse, Mullese, Kramnitse and Kobelitse.

On Falster only one settlement has a genuine Slawic name, namely Korselitse. The other place names of possible Slawic origin on this island are all names on mounds, springs and similar.

At the small Fribroedre River just south of the city of Stubbekoebing the remains of a small shipyard has been found that with great probability is Slawic. The Slawic ships were more flat-bottomed than the danish, the mast boar had a special design, they used moss for tightning between planks, and the sheerstrake planks were fastened with wooden nails. A dendrochronological tests of a ship's planks showed that the tree has been cut between 1050 and 1055. In field books from 1682 the place is called "Pri Broedres Agre". A known Slawic field name is "Prybrode", where "pry" stands for "at", and "brod" for "ford".

On the island of Moen exist the place names Toevelde, which in 1257 was called Tubald, Poelsegave, named Polzeghaart in 1370, Rejse named Regidse in 1550, and Golse, all of Slawic origin.

In the dialekts of the southern islands has been found one word only, that can be attributed to Slawic, namely to "kampe" which means to bathe, wash one self, registered at South Falster.

I think that such danish words as "gast" (sailor on a sailship) and "knaegt" (lad, boy, young man) may also be of Slawic origin.

A rune stone was found as recycled building block in the walls of the church in Soender Kirkeby on Falster. It says, "-ser erected this stone after his brother As- and found death on Gotland. Thor bless these runes." It makes probable that the Danes came to Falster first and the Slaws arrived later. The Slaws may be accepted as Christians, it was probably the only thing that mattered in the Middle Age. The fact that they recycled a runestone in the building of the church wall shows, how little the newly converted Christians regarded the history and the ancestors.

Saxon Emigration into the land of the Slaws

Helmold's Slaw Chronicle says: "But mostly the Slaws raged because of the Saxon occupation. They broke their chains and ravaged at the border to Holstein, and the village Faldera was devastated because of the almost daily looting of people and cities."

Heinrich L�we and his wife Mathilde from England

Heinrich Loewe and his wife Mathilde from England.

And elsewhere in the Chronicle: "But Henrik, who was the Duke, was always moving quickly with weapons in hand, and secretly he collected a army of Holsteiner and Stormarner in the wintertime and invaded Slawland and attacked those, who came in his way, and who were a thorn in the eyes of the Saxons, and knocked them down with a heavy hand in all the countries around Ploen, Lutjenburg, Oldenburg and the whole area beginning at the river Saale, and ends at the Baltic Sea and the river Trave. They ravaged the whole country in one stretch, galloped along and took the loot and set on fire, except in the cities that were fortified with ramparts and moats, which required a major effort."

"But because the land was deserted, he (Duke Adolf) called out to all countries, to Flanders and Holland and Utrecht and Westphalia and Friesland, and invited anyone, who owned only a little land to come with their families and get the very best land, vast fields, rich in crops, with abundance of fish and meat and suitable for grazing. And he said to the Holsteiners and Stormarns: "Did you not subdue the land of the Slaws, did you not buy it with the death of your brothers and fathers? Why do you then come as the last ones to take it into your possession? No, come as the first ones, and move over to live on this land, which anybody must wish for, and cultivate it and take part in its pleasures, for you deserve the very best of it, you, who have taken it out of enemy hands".

The Sanctuary Fortresses Guldborg and Borrebjerg on Langeland

The sanctuary fortresses Guldborg and Borrebjerg on Langeland

The sanctuary fortresses Guldborg and Borrebjerg on the island of Langeland.

Langeland Museum has conducted excavations on the castle hill Guldborg and in the sanctuary fortress of Borrebjerg.

On Guldborg have been found evidence for a dramatic slaughter of at least 25 men, women and children.

A man about 25 years and a girl about 13 years were rapidly buried under a thin layer of soil, a horse's skin with skull and legbones had been hanging over the dead. The defence ramparts gate and parts of the wooden stockade bore traces of having been burnt down during the fight. There were many remnants of coffin hardware, amber and glass beads, others jewelry and some coins. It could be shown that those other killed had been left where they fell in a very long time, maybe more than a year. At a later clean-up their bones had unceremoniously been shoveled together.

Together with the remnants of the victims belongings and other rubbish the scattered bones have been used as fill up in a lightly submerged access road through the ruined port and at the burned down stockade.

The youngest coin was minted during the reign of Erik Emune. The massacre of Guldborg can therefore not have taken place before the late 1130's, but may indeed be set to about 1140 - 1150.

The findings are commonly interpreted as follows: The Christian Danish residents of Langeland had together sought refuge behind the ramparts on Guldborg, as they were attacked by a large crowd of Slawic pirates. The pirates slaughtered the defenders. They sacrificed two captured Danes to their pagan gods and then left the place in a great hurry without plundering the corpses. Since Langeland by this time was completely empty for inhabitans, the corpses were left on the ground for many months maybe a year, before some people arrived to on the place and used the scattered bones to fill up some holes together with other rubbish.

It is clearly a very unsatisfactory explanation. The medieval Danes were deeply Christian, and it was unthinkable that they would not bury their dead fellow christians in consecrated soil.

Horse skin with skull and footbones hanging on a pole

Horse skin with skull and footbones hanging on a pole.

We can provide another explanation, which fits better with the findings: After several years of pirate attacks Langeland is more or less uninhabited. Pressed by the Saxon terror some Slawic families settle for a new home on the almost uninhabited island. A group of Christian Danish men decide, that this is too much, first the Slaws come as pirates and drive out the Christians Danish residents, and then come the pagan Slawish settlers and take the country in possession. They decide to make an endloesung and surround the Guldborg rampart system, where the Slawish settlers have sought refuge. In their life's distress the besieged sacrifice two from their own group and a horse to their pagan gods and bury them quickly. But it is of no use, the attackers break through and mercilessly slaugther the Slawic settlers. They do not bother about looting. The corpses are allowed to to lie, where they fell. For a long time the locals avoid to enter the fortress of fear of ghosts. After more than a year, the skeletons are shoveled together and used for fill up some holes together with the remains of their belongings and some other rubbish; they were only pagans.

The excavation of the sanctuary fortress Borrebjerg shows a similar scenario. Twice the castle's defenders have been overwhelmed and slaughtered. Their bodies were both times allowed to lie until most of the flesh had rotted away, and then the remains were shoveled together. Skeletal remains of the first defenders were used as filling in an improvement of the defence dike.

We remember Saxo's remark about Svend Grathe on the island of Fyn: "When king Svend Grathe cleared Fyn for Slaws, he and his men fought for so long and so hard, that they toiled the skin of their palms and finally swung the swords with the bloody meat in their hands."

Place Names which Starts with Vind- or Vend-

In old Danish the Slaws were called Vender. It has been suggested that such place names that contain Vind-, Vinde- or Vend- as first syllable, this meant Slaw- so would Vinde-by mean Slaw-town and Vinde-roed mean Slaw-roed. It is about such place names as Vindeby, Vindemark, Vindbyholt, Vindeballe, Vinde Helsinge, Vindelev, Vindeltorp, Vinderoed and of course the excavation site Vindeboder at Roskilde, not to mention Vendsyssel.

That explanation is not entirely satisfactory. In Odense there is Vindegade, and it is called that because it "vinds" - twists - through the city. There is nothing to suggest that many Slaws lived there, or that there was a particular strong wind blowing through the street.

The Slaw ships were rather small and not very suitable for sailing on the high seas, it is unrealistic to think that they could have reached Vendsyssel in the north. The Slaws had most likely called themselves something like "Sorbs" or "Serbs", like other slavonic peoples did.

Peaceful Relations between Denmark and Slavic Peoples

Runestone in Soender Vissing church

Runestone in Soender Vissing church - It says: "Tove, Mistivi's daugther, Harald the Good, Gorm's son's wife, let make runes after her mother."

During the Viking Age and the early Middle Ages the royal families were associated by kinship ties across the Baltic Sea.

On the rune stone in Soender Vissing church in Jutland we can read that Harald Bluetooth was married to Tove, daughter of the knes of the Abodrits, Mistivoi.

Svend Forkbeard, Harald's son, married a Polish princess. Knud Lavard and Erik Emune married the sisters Ingeborg and Malmfrid, daughters of the Grand Duke Mistislav of Novgorod. Valdemar the Great married Sophia of Russia.

Many Danish kings were named Valdemar. The name comes from the Russian Vladimir or Woldomir, meaning "Ruler of the World" or "World's Peace". Valdemar the Great was named after his great-grandfather on the mothers side, Grand Duke Woldomir of Kiev.

12. Literature

Reidgotaland - Gutisk-Andja Burgunder og Vandaler - Asernes Aet - Verasir Flemming Rickfors
Goter, Vandaler og Langobarder - Maritim historisk information Maritim Historisk information.
Helmond af Bosau's Vender KroenikeCrassus.
Vender Leksikon - Venner og fjender
Vendere og Danmark - Aabent Seminar - pdf Syddansk Universitet.
Tidslinie - Dansk Militaer Historie
Kong Gorms Saga - Middelalderstudier Kristian Andersen Nyrup.
Historisk leksikon og kildesamling - Institut for Historie og Områdestudier - Aarhus Universitet
Kongeraekken - Kongehuset

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