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6. Similarities Between Danish and Chinese Language
8. Elements of Indo-European Culture in China

7. Similarities in Heraldry and Construction Style

There are some startling similarities in the historical building style, shipbuilding and heraldry between China and Scandinavia.

The Han dynasty bronze horse from Gansu The head of the horse from Gansu Here is the famous Han Dynasty horse, cast in bronze. The legs lifted, the tail high in the air and the head back, nostrils wide open, elegant, nervous and full of life. It is one of "The heavenly horses", "the horses sweating blood", from Fergana, which the Han Emperor got from the Yuezhi people (Yuch Chi). They were the key to victory over the Xiong-Nu, later in Europe called by their real name, as they called themselves, "the Huns".

Note the engraved curl under its ear. It is similar to the one, which the Cherchen-man has got painted on his temple. I understand that also other mummies from the Tarim Basin have such figures painted on their temples. It also looks like the base figure in the pattern of Qin Shi Huang's clothes. (See Section 8. The Indo-European Culture to China) The picture of the head of the horse is from an enlarged copy. The curl can also be seen on the original horse.

Panel from excavated Chinese house from Han Dynasty 1. Panel from excavated Chinese house from Han Dynasty 2. The three lions from the Danish coat of arms Dancing bear from decoration in an excavated house from Han Dynasty Potent lion on decoration in an excavated house from Han Dynasty Dragon from decoration in an excavated house from Han Dynasty
Decorations from an excavated Han Dynasty house. The artistic style of the Qin and Han Dynasty, (Qin Dynasty, 221 BC - 206 BC, followed by the Han, 202 BC - 220 AC) is continued in the same style as that of the horse. A dancing bear, a leaping dragon and a potent lion, everything was possible.

They have the same nervous, elegant and lively style as the horse from Gansu. Head back, mouth open, legs lifted high and tail raised high.

Qin and Han dynasty seems to have been a time when everything could be done.

The three crowned lions in the Danish coat of arms are also precisely in this style, energetic and vibrant with their head back, mouth open, legs raised high and the tail lifted.

Chinese Tempel with dragons on the roof Mediaval Norwegian wooden church The tops of the gables of old Chinese buildings were decorated by animal heads, dragon heads or the like. Scandinavian buildings from the time of the Vikings, such as the ancient Norwegian wooden churches, are also decorated with animal heads on the gable tips.

All over China there will every year be arranged dragon boat races. A dragon boat is a lighter version of a Viking Ship, decorated with a dragon head on the bow.

Scandinavian Viking ship Traditional Chinese Dragon Boat In the old days, they were used to wage war on the rivers. They are to be paddled just like the boat found in the Hjortespring Moor in Denmark. Can it really be a complete coincidence, that both the Viking ships and the ancient Chinese warships were designed like this, with a dragon head in the bow?

A pleasure boat on Yalu River at Dandong is rather similar to a Viking Ship. Those, who have built this boat, have for sure never heard of the Vikings. They simply followed the tradition; this is just how a boat should look like, so be it.

Pleasure boat with a dragon head on the bow on the Yalu River, North Korea in the background Dragonhead from Viking ship found in the Schelde river Dragonhead on ship duck found at the lower Yangtze The photo to the left shows a dragonhead from a Viking ship found in the Schelde River in Belgium. Then there is an image of a dragon bow of a ship excavated in Hubei at the Yangtze River. The picture is painted on a wooden duck and shows a dragon of the same type as the head from the Schelde river with "eagle beak." (Photo from Flemming Rickfors)

See a drawing of a dragon from Qin-Han Dynasty pictured from a silk painting found in Ma Wang Dui in the province of Hunan.

Chinese dragon on silk painting from Ma Wang Dui Coin from Dorestad with dragon Sceat from Dorestad Compare it with a dragon on a Scandinavian coin, a "sceat" from about 700 AC, found in Ribe and Dorestad. The outline of the dragon marked in black. It is the complete same crocodile-like type of dragon as the one on the silk painting from China, with the tongue sticking long out of the mouth, or perhaps it spits fire. (Photo of a coin with outline drawing by Flemming Rickfors)

Reconstructed house in the Danish Viking fortress Trelleborg with outdoor gallery House on the wall at Dandong with outdoor gallery Above is a traditional Chinese building in ancient style from the wall at Dandong, with colonnade all around. To the left a reconstructed house from the Viking fortress Trelleborg, as it is assumed to appear, also with colonnade all around.

Also, the ancient Borgund stave church in Norway has colonnade all around its perimeter (called svale-gang).

It is reasonable to suggest that such a building design must have been developed in countries, where summers are somewhat warmer than in Scandinavia so that there really was a need to "svale" (cool down in Danish).

It is also logical to assume that the bird that liked to nest in the "svale-gang", got the name "svale" (swallow).

Construction of Borgund Stave church with outdoor collonnade Swedish house which belonged to a royal officier from the seveteenth century with outdoor access corridor
Left: Construction of the Norwegian Borgund Stave church with outdoor colonnade - svale-gang in Danish.
Right: Swedish house which belonged to a royal officer from the seventeenth century with an outdoor access corridor - svale-gang in Danish.

Medieval Houses in Scandinavia very often were built with an exterior staircase that led up to an outside balcony on the first floor. From there, doors led to various rooms, such as warehouses, bedrooms and similar.

In Tunsberg Medieval History it is described how two such houses were facing each other in such a way that the outdoor corridors were opposite each other. In historical Chinese movies one can see a very similar dual house type, in which there is access to all rooms on the first floor from outdoor galleries, facing each other.

"Svalen" is mentioned in the Danish medieval ballad "Roselil and her mother":

Sir Peter stood on "svalen" and listened with cunning,
Sir Peter stood on "svalen" and listened with cunning:
Who laughs last will still laugh best!
Ha, ha, ha! So, so, so, so!
Ha, ha, ha! So, so, so, so!
The one laughs best, who laughs last!

Below is shown see a reconstruction in a model of the Qin Imperial Palace. The house from the Trelleborg fortress and the Qin palace has been reconstructed independently; never the less they are quite similar. I think only the animal heads in the gable tips are missing in both cases.

Qin's Imperial palace - reconstruction in Xianyang's Municipal Museum The general custom of the Indo-European peoples on the Eurasian plains was to place their dead in burial mounds. Only a few peoples, like Yuezhi "burnt their dead". There are thousands of ancient burial mounds all the way over the Eurasian plains.

The first Qin emperor was placed in a burial mound near Xian in a very impressive tomb. It resembles the Jelling Mound, but of course many times larger.

Below to the left is a photo of the Qin Shi Huang's tomb at Xian. To the right is the Jelling Mound. Hills of soil must, of course, look rather alike, but never the less it is a similar burial custom. The Jelling tomb contained a square burial chamber.

Qin Shi Huang's burial mound at Xian The Jelling Burial Mound Long Defence dikes were quite popular a few thousand years ago. They can be found both in England, Scandinavia and of course in China. In England is Hadrian's Wall, built by the Romans, and Offa's Dyke, which defended the Anglian kingdom of Mercia against the native tribes in Wales. In Sweden was Gøtavirke in East Gøtaland. In Denmark, we had Danevirke in Slesvig and Olmer's Dike in southern Jutland.

Offa's Dyke in Mid England at Wales Gøtavirke in East Gøtaland in Sweden Hadrian's wall in North England near Scotland In China's ancient past many of the original states had erected walls at their northern border in order to protect themselves against the Huns. When the Qin conquered the whole of China around 200 BC, they joined the original walls together and thus created the Great Wall.

Left: Offa's Dyke in Mid England at Wales.
Mid: Gøtavirke in East Gøtaland in Sweden.
Right: Hadrian's wall in North England at Scotland.

However, the impressive wall, we know today, has been built by the Ming and Qing Dynasty a few hundred years ago. The original antique walls two thousand years ago undoubtedly had been more "dike"- like.

Below left: Danevirke in Slesvig.
Below mid: The Great Wall in northern China at present Mongolia.
Below right: Qin Dynasty part of the Great Wall in Ning Xia north of Guyuan - it is ten meters high.

Danevirke in Slesvig The Great Wall in the northern China at present Mongolia Qin Dynasty part of the Great Wall in Ning Xia north of Guyuan
See a thorough and inspiring review of building styles: Gudshuset fra Midgaard - Verasir by Flemming Rickfors (Danish)

And a good description of our own Danish historical roofs: Telt, Strå og Spån - Vore oprindelige tage - Verasir af Flemming Rickfors (Danish)

Se also: The State Hermitagemuseum - Scytian Art

Se also Prof. John Haskins' Slide Collection - Scytian Slide Collection with many photos of Scythian gold objects

Se also Scythian and Sarmatian Treasures from the Russian Steppes - Metropolitan Museum of Art with beautiful photos of Scythian gold objects

Se also the Chinese page: China -ZhangJiaKou Propaganda Department , it takes very long time to log in and looks very messy in the first glance, it is because it is really very big.

However On the bottom half of the page can be found more than 150 photos of parts of the Great Wall which otherwise rarely can be seen.

Norwegian medieval houses are very carefully described in: Tunsbergs Historie i Middelalderen til 1536 af Helge Gjessing (Norwegian)

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