2. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke
4. Emergency Law and Prerogative
|1. John Stuart Mill||2. Freedom of Speech|
|3. Pro et Contra||4. Individualism|
|5. Pro et Contra||6. Restriction of Authority|
|7. Pro et Contra||8. Literature|
1. John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill 1806-1873. John Stuart Mill 1806-1873. He was born in England and lived most of his life there. He died in Avignon in France.
John Stuart Mill was a member of the Bri-tish Parliament and was the banner bear-er of the Liberal Left. For one hundred and fifty years he has been the great role model of the English left. He was a lead-ing personality in the intellectual life and contributed to the disciplines of logic, eco-nomics, ethics and political philosophy. Today he is best known for his easy, "On Liberty", in which he defends individu-alism and freedom of speech embodied in three principles, which will improve and complete democracy:
Jeremy Bentham and the utilitarianism's motto: "The greatest happiness of the greatest number". Photo: In Defense of Utilitarianism.
John Stuart Mill was the son of the Scottish philosopher and historian James Mill, who had great ambitions on behalf of his son. He was educated at home in London by his father and did not go to school like other children. He can almost be described as a prodigy. At the age of three, he learned the Greek alphabet and long lists of Greek words. At the age of eight he learned arithmetic and had read the fables of Aesop, the Anabasis of Xenophon, and all of Herodotus in Greek. The following year he read po-litical economics by Adam Smith and David Ricardo.
Satire on John Stuart Mill's support for the women's cause. He pushes the men aside and leads the women forward. Apparently, Mill was not a phy-sically big man. Photo National Archives Wikipedia.
In 1831, when he was 25 years old, he fell in love with Harriet Taylor, whom he met at a din-ner party.
2. Freedom of Thought and Freedom of Speech
The phrase "Marketplace of Ideas" is undoubtedly inspired by Mill. He de-clared himself in favor of "absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects, practical or speculative, scientific, moral, or theological." He be-lieved that free competition between ideas is the best way to separate lies from truth.
Fra hjemmesiden Utilitarianism Resources.
Mills did not write this because he thought it would be a pity for some that their opinions were suppres-sed, or because he thought it was fair that everyone should be allow-ed to give their opinion. No, loyal to his philosophy of utility, he believ-ed that such a marketplace of ideas and attitudes with lively supply and demand, where all ideas would be tested against a relentless argu-mentation, would create an optimal social development - because so only the best and truest ideas would survive - it would create the cause of "The greatest good for the greatest number".
English Parliament under Charles 1. (1600 - 1649) Photo Historic UK.
"A time, however, came in the pro-gress of human affairs, when men ceased to think it a necessity of na-ture that their governors should be an independent power, opposed in inte-rest to themselves. It appeared to them much better that the various magistrates of the State should be their tenants or delegates, revocable at their pleasure. In that way alone, it seemed, could they have complete security that the powers of government would never be abused to their disadvantage."
Book burning in Germany in 1933. Photo Bibliomirok.
Mill argues that such sup-pression of the opinions of a minority is completely un-acceptable: "Let us sup-pose, therefore, that the govern-ment is entirely at one with the people, and never thinks of exerting any power of coercion unless in agreement with what it conceives to be their voice. But I deny the right of the people to exercise such coercion, either by them-selves or by their government. The power itself is illegitimate. The best go-vernment has no more title to it than the worst."
Emperor Constantine I monitors that Aryan priests are forced to burn their books. Almost all Ger-manic migration peoples, Goths, Burgundians, Vandals and Thur-ingians, were Aryans. The Arian faith was characterized by the belief that the Father (God) is eternal and uncreated, while the Son (Jesus) is derived from the Father and has not always existed and that the Father is above the Son, while the Catholic Church believes in the Trinity, which is characterized by the that God is one and at the same time three, which is the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. The details of Arianism are lost forever because their faith was effectively sup-pressed by the Catholic Church and their books were burned.
"The most intolerant of churches, the Roman Catholic Church," Mill writes, "even at the canonization of a saint, admits, and listens patiently to, a "devil's advocate." The holiest of men, it appears, cannot be admitted to posthumous honors, until all that the devil could say against him is known and weighed. If even the Newtonian philo-sophy were not permitted to be questioned, mankind could not feel as com-plete assurance of its truth as they now do. The beliefs which we have most warrant for, have no safeguard to rest on, but a standing invitation to the whole world to prove them unfounded. If the challenge is not accepted, or is accepted and the attempt fails, we are far enough from certainty still; but we have done the best that the existing state of human reason admits of; we have neglected nothing that could give the truth a chance of reaching us: if the lists are kept open, we may hope that if there be a better truth, it will be found when the human mind is capable of receiving it; and in the meantime we may rely on having attained such approach to truth, as is possible in our own day. This is the amount of certainty attainable by a fallible being, and this the sole way of attaining it."
3. PRO Democracy
Freedom of speech is a fundamen-tal right and a precondition for a democracy.
It is dangerous to speak out. Photo Lurantol Live Journal.
"Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination" under the UN is designed to prevent the spread of harmful ideas. It obliges the state parties to take measures to combat any incitement to or exercising of racial discrimination. In particular, states are obliged to criminalize the spread of ideas based on preconceived notions of racial superiority or racial hatred. Encouragement of discrimination, acts of violence and incitement to violence against persons of an-other ethnic origin. The treaty was ratified by Denmark in 1971.
Charlie Hebdo's drawing of the drowned Kurdish boy, Aylan Kur-di, lying on a Turkish beach - his five-year-old brother also drowned. "So close to the goal" is written above him. A sign resembling an advertise-ment for McDonalds reads: "Promoti-on! 2 children's menus for the price of one".
"European Convention on Human Rights" in principle, calls on citi-zens to have freedom of expres-sion, but in a paragraph 2 it gives national governments carte blan-che to restrict it as needed: "The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries with it duties and respon-sibilities, may be subject to such formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a demo-cratic society, in the interests of national security, territorial integrity or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the pro-tection of health or morals, for the protection of the reputation or rights of others, for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, or for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary."
Lars Løkke Rasmussen took part in the Marakesh konference as Danish prime minister. Photo nv.ua.
As the Prime Minister of Denmark Lars Løkke Rasmussen accepted in 2018 the Marrakech Treaty, which is the controversial UN trea-ty "Global Compact for Safe and Orderly Migration", which is sup-posed to open up for emigrants from Africa to Europe who do not have to describe themselves as refugees. The Danish People's Party was the only party in the par-liament that was opposed to the treaty, which the party believed will open up for more migrants from Africa and the Middle East. The treaty further obliged the signatory states to further restrict freedom of expression by: "increasing aware-ness of the fight against xenopho-bia, racism and discrimination: the Parties will strive to combat these phenomena and promote a balan-ced narrative on migration and dia-sporas, based on facts and high-lights their positive contributions to the development of communities in countries of origin, transit and de-stination."
One can not speak out about everything. Photo Natural News.
In 2016, the European Commis-sion partnered with Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Microsoft to combat hate speech online. With the so-called Code of Conduct, the IT companies undertook to review reports of hate speech on their platforms and respond on illegal content within 24 hours. The par-ties define illegal hate speech ba-sed on the 2008 EU Framework Decision on Xenophobia and Ra-cism and related criminal law. The censorship thus includes public in-citement to violence or hatred di-rected against a group of persons or a member of such a group, which is defined by reference to ra-ce, color, religion, national or eth-nic origin.
"Free speech is not an absolute human right" says prominent Facebook censorship board member and former premier of Denmark Helle Thorning-Schmidt. Foto Keywordbasket.
The European Parliament has lately (07-21) by an overwhelming majority decided to repeal their "Directive on privacy and electronic communications" by that network providers should be allowed to read all private e-mails and chats and hand over the content to the police upon request. Suspicious behavior is not a requirement, they only need to declare that they are looking for child pornography.
Words can kill. Photo Yvision.kz.
There is no such thing as freedom of speech. Every idea is an incen-tive; every word is potentially a battle cry. There can be no real context in which speech is free. Speech is never free from state pressure; there are always limits to what is allowed to say. Speech al-ways has consequences; it promo-tes some interests over others; words mean something. Words can call for violence - Words can kill!
The Danish politicians have soa-ked the country's legislation with international treaties to such an extent that freedom of expression has become a mere theoretical-philosophical concept.
international treaties. Photo Instagram.
Locke's - and Mill's - theory say that the government is merely a trusted secretary. Mill wrote: "It ap-peared to them much better that the various magistrates of the Sta-te should be their tenants or dele-gates, revocable at their pleasure."
George Washington crosses the Delaware River in the middle of winter during the American Re-volution. Painting by Emanuel Leutze.
The American Revolution became the model for the French Revolu-tion in 1789, which in turn inspired other European peoples to create democratic constitutions, including Denmark. It can thus be said that John Locke was the architect - at least the most important architect - behind today's democratic consti-tutions.
The attack on of the Bastille which started the French Revo-lution. Photo Pinterest.
Locke's and Mill's theory is, so to speak, that government is merely a trusted secretary. We have en-trusted him with the authority to do the things that we find difficult or impossible to do ourselves, just as we can authorize a secretary to take care of our business when we are busy with other things. But if the secretary abuses our confiden-ce - perhaps commits embezzle-ment - we can fire him. And if the government abuses our trust by usurping our legitimate authority and authority, we can dismiss it.
Censorship. Foto keamanan siber -Magdalene.
If the government introduces guar-dians for the people and only shows them the material that be-nefits themselves - as is the case with restrictions on freedom of ex-pression - then the people's tru-sted secretary had abused our trust and robbed the people of their legitimate power and autho-rity.
Censorship. Foto Trkeljanje.
That is exactly what all Western governments have done. But they themselves believe that they have clean hands because they have outsourced censorship, manipu-lation and misinformation to social media, privately owned newspa-pers - which they do support finan-cially with public funds - and state-owned and state-funded television channels.
Muslims burn "The Satanic Ver-ses" by Salman Rushdie during a demonstration. Photo Readers Door.
In 1988, Salman Rusdie published the novel, "The Satanic Verses", in which in a dream scene it is sug-gested that some of the verses in the Qur'an were written by Satan. As a result, Iran's then-leader Aya-tollah Khomeini issued a fatwa on Rushdie containing a death sen-tence for blasphemy. The fatwa has never been withdrawn or re-pealed, and in 2016, the Iranian state radio stations raised the bounty. Ever since, Salman Rusdie has lived underground. It is said that today he lives in the United States protected by security ser-vices.
One must speak out with caution. Photo Youtube.
There is not much to suggest that any mainstream media has any real desire to criticize Muslims and the Muslim immigration. But even if they were to have this wish, they probably would not do it, because it would necessitate such a high cost of security and surveillance that it would probably exceed the financial capacity of most of the newspapers.
Governments' goal of censorship is said to be to protect citi-zens from being emotionally abused. Photo Spookblog.
Words and action belong to diffe-rent categories. God created the world by uttering words. "Be light," He said, and then became light. But it is not allowed ordinary mor-tals to make things happen simply by uttering words. Words are not actions, but can be used to nego-tiate, discuss and consider which actions we prefer.
E-mail spying. Photo spayte - livejournal.com.
Mill begins the section on individual freedom: "Such being the reasons which make it imperative that human beings should be free to form opini-ons, and to express their opinions without reserve; and such the baneful consequences to the intellectual, and through that to the moral nature of man, unless this liberty is either conceded, or asserted in spite of prohibi-tion; let us next examine whether the same reasons do not require that men should be free to act upon their opinions - to carry these out in their lives, without hindrance, either physical or moral, from their fellow-men, so long as it is at their own risk and peril."
Statue of the Dominican monk Giordana Bruno on the spot where he was burned on the sta-ke in the year 1600 in the squ-are Campo de 'Fiori in Rome. He was executed because he sup-ported Copernicus' theory that the Earth revolves around the Sun and not the other way a-round, as the Catholic Church believed. Photo by daryl mit-chell from Saskatoon, Saskat-chewan, Canada Wikipedia.
Faithful to his father and Jeremy Bentham's utilitarianism he does not support his position on natural freedom rights or the like, but only on that men will be happier when they have the opportunity to live their lives as they wish. Individual freedom will thus contribute to "the greatest possible happiness for the greatest possible number of people"..
The Railway Station - probably Paddington - painted by William Po-well Frith in 1862. People's life at a London railway station in Victorian times. Photo Branch.
He criticizes his contemporaries for mediocrity: "At present individuals are lost in the crowd. In politics it is almost a triviality to say that public opinion now rules the world. The only power deserving the name is that of masses, and of governments while they make themselves the organ of the tendencies and instincts of masses."
Wealthy English family in the Victorian era. Photo Victorian Era in British History.
We can recognize a budding existentialism in: "The hu-man faculties of perception, judgment, discriminative feeling, mental activity, and even moral preference, are exercised only in making a choice. He who does any-thing because it is the cu-stom, makes no choice." - "He who lets the world, or his own portion of it, choose his plan of life for him, has no need of any ot-her faculty than the ape-like one of imitation. He who chooses his plan for himself, employs all his faculties. He must use observation to see, reason-ing and judgment to foresee, activity to gather materials for decision, dis-crimination to decide, and when he has decided, firmness and self-control to hold to his deliberate decision."
Portrait of the religious reformer John Calvin 1509-1564. Photo Biography.
Mill is rich in words but poor in ex-amples, and it can be difficult to see what he specifically means. But in his critique of Calvin's Christianity one senses the outline of Rous-seau's battle cry "Back to Nature," probably motivated by his own harsh childhood: "It is so, on the Calvinistic theory. According to that, the one great offence of man is Self-will. All the good of which hu-manity is capable, is comprised in Obedience. You have no choice; thus you must do, and no otherwise; "whatever is not a duty is a sin." Hu-man nature being radically corrupt, there is no redemption for any one until human nature is killed within him. To one holding this theory of life, crushing out any of the human faculties, capacities, and susceptibilities, is no evil: man needs no capacity, but that of surrendering himself to the will of God: and if he uses any of his faculties for any other purpose but to do that sup-posed will more effectually, he is better without them. That is the theory of Calvinism; and it is held, in a mitigated form, by many who do not consider themselves Calvinists.
The Scottish inventor James Watt (1759-1818) effectively invented the steam en-gine, which enabled steam-powered machi-nes in factories, railways, steamships, steam-powered pumps and steam excavators.
Mill wonder why God gave man all these e-motions, instincts and inclinations, that are drivers for individualism and that Calvin would clean out. God must have had an intention that the urges that he himself had created should be used for something. Mill writes: "It is not by wearing down into uniformity all that is individual in themselves, but by cultivating it and calling it forth, within the limits imposed by the rights and interests of others, that human beings become a noble and beautiful object of contemplation."
Inventor of the railway locomotive George Step-henson 1781-1848 was born in Wylam, Northumber-land. He was the second child of Robert and Ma-bel Stephenson, neither of whom could read or write. He was a mechanical genius. As a 17-year-old, he became an engineer at the Water Row Pit in Newburn. George realized the value of educa-tion and paid to attend evening school to learn reading, writing and arithmetic - he was illi-terate until he was 18 years old.
He does not believe that changing fashions is an ex-pression of individualism. "We have discarded the fix-ed costumes of our forefathers; every one must still dress like other people, but the fashion may change once or twice a year. We thus take care that when there is change, it shall be for change's sake, and not from any idea of beauty or convenience; for the same idea of beauty or convenience would not strike all the world at the same moment, and be simultaneously thrown aside by all at another mo-ment."
Henry Bessemer, inventor of the Bessemer oven, which made it possible to produce steel in large quantities, relatively cheaply, for railway rails and plates and profiles for, among other things, steel ships.
In his time, the Industrial Revolution was still in full bloom in England. It would have been fitting, if he had mentioned all the fantastic and creative inventions made by contemporary English inventors, engineers and manufacturers, which were to come to change the world, and which were largely driven by individu-alism. In the chapter on individualism he contented himself with writing: "There is now scarcely any outlet for energy in this country except business."
5. PRO Demokrati
Mill downplays the value of handed down culture and thereby partially anticipates Marxism. He writes a-bout the - in his opinion - confor-mist majority: "The majority, being satisfied with the ways of mankind as they now are (for it is they who make them what they are), cannot comprehend why those ways should not be good enough for everybody."
Mill: "Comparatively speaking, they now read the same things, listen to the same things, see the same things, go to the same places, have their hopes and fears directed to the same ob-jects" Foto Pinterest.
A marketplace of ideas - or rather a mess - where fake news is mar-keted together with factual truth and where conspiracy theories are equated with scientific facts will on-ly create a lot of noise and excite-ment, and there will come no use-ful basis for action from that.
The marketplace of ideas. Photo Secure DeFi Etherum Platform.
A marketplace of ideas will simply drown the truth in a myriad of pe-culiar messages..
The marketplace of ideas. Photo Effective Leadership State Te.
In addition, there is a fierce com-petition in the media market. There are several television channels and several nationwide newspa-pers. It is a pure conspiracy story that all the major media should agree on what information the people can stand to hear and what is better to conceal.
Main stream media. Photo Yandex Zen.
It is not true that a precondition for individualism and development is to reject traditional culture and ways of life inherited throughout hi-story.
The Bessemer oven at the Kelham Island Industrial Museum. Photo Oxyman Wikipedia.
There is no evidence that they should have exhibited deviant be-havior and dressing as an expres-sion of individualism. By all ac-counts, they loved their homeland and appreciated a traditional hearty "English breakfast" and a "nice cup of tea", while immersed in problems with steam pressure, mechanical fittings and heatresi-stant linings.
6. Restriction of Authority of Society over Individuals
John Stuart Mill begins his chapter on the limits of society's authority over individuals: "What then, is the rightful limit to the sovereignty of the indivi-dual over himself? Where does the authority of society begin? How much of human life should be assigned to individuality, and how much to society?"
Statue of John Stuart Mill in the Victoria Embankment in London. Photo Wikipedia Commons.
Mill is not a supporter of the social con-tract, he says, but believes that the indi-vidual has obligations to society: "every one who receives the protection of so-ciety owes a return for the benefit" - "each should be bound to observe a certain line of conduct towards the rest. This conduct consists, first, in not in-juring the interests of one another; or rather certain interests, which, either by express legal provision or by tacit under-standing, ought to be considered as rights; and secondly, in each person's bearing his share (to be fixed on some equitable principle) of the labors and sacrifices incurred for defending the society or its members from injury and molestation."
Freedom-loving women from the Women's Freedom League pay tribute to their hero John Stuart Mill in 1908. Photo Woman and her Sphere. Photo Woman and her Sphere.
Although society does not directly intervene if a person chooses to live his life in a strongly divergent way, then this person must accept that others may have less flattering opinions about his way of living: "A per-son who shows rashness, obstinacy, self-conceit - who cannot live within moderate means - who cannot restrain himself from hurtful indulgences - who pursues animal pleasures at the expense of those of feeling and intel-lect - must expect to be lowered in the opinion of others, and to have a less share of their favorable sentiments, but of this he has no right to complain."
John Stuart Mill and his stepdaughter Helen Taylor. Photo "En feministisk grundtekst".
In the question of in which ca-ses society should intervene against a person, who harms himself, Mill is relatively spe-cific to a change: "I fully admit that the mischief which a per-son does to himself, may se-riously affect, both through their sympathies and their in-terests, those nearly connec-ted with him, and in a minor degree, society at large. When, by conduct of this sort, a per-son is led to violate a distinct and assignable obligation to any other person or persons, the case is taken out of the self-regarding class, and becomes amenable to moral disapprobation in the proper sense of the term."
The Muslim ban on pork has long been known in the Middle East. Herodot-us writes about Egypt in "Histories" about 450 years before our time - more than a thousand years before anyone had thought of Muhammad - "The pig is regarded a-mong them as an unclean animal, so much so that if a man in passing accidentally touch a pig, he instantly hurries to the river, and plunges in with all his clothes on." Photo: Min planet.
Mill cites six examples of governments or dominant public opinions that he believes represent unduly interfering in the personal lives of the country's residents.
Married Russian Orthodox priest. "Photo Iznat.com.
"To come somewhat nearer home: the majority of Spa-niards consider it a gross impiety, offensive in the highest degree to the Supre-me Being, to worship him in any other manner than the Roman Catholic; and no ot-her public worship is lawful on Spanish soil. The people of all Southern Europe look upon a married clergy as not only irreligious, but unchaste, indecent, gross, disgusting. What do Protestants think of these perfectly sincere feelings, and of the at-tempt to enforce them against non-Catholics?"
Illegal alcohol is poured into the ditch in the United States in the 1920's. The ban was introduced in 13 states. Among other things, the pharmacies supported the ban, as they experienced a boom in the sale of an invigorating tonic medicine containing Co-lombian coca (cocaine was not banned at this time).
"To imagine another contingency, perhaps more likely to be realized than the one last mentioned." - "It is affirmed that in the country where this ten-dency is most completely realized--where both society and the government are most democratic--the United States--the feeling of the majority, to whom any appearance of a more showy or costly style of living than they can hope to rival is disagreeable, operates as a tolerably effectual sumptuary law, and that in many parts of the Union it is really difficult for a person possessing a very large income, to find any mode of spending it, which will not incur po-pular disapprobation."
Mormon big family." Photo a-News.
He mentions the mormons as example: "I cannot refrain from adding to these ex-amples of the little account commonly made of human liberty, the language of downright persecution which breaks out from the press of this country, whenever it feels called on to notice the remarkable phenome-non of Mormonism. Much might be said on the unexpected and instructive fact, that an alleged new revelation, and a religion, founded on it, the pro-duct of palpable imposture, not even supported by the prestige of extra-ordinary qualities in its founder, is believed by hundreds of thousands, and has been made the foundation of a society, in the age of newspapers, rail-ways, and the electric telegraph." - "What here concerns us is, that this re-ligion, like other and better religions, has its martyrs; that its prophet and founder was, for his teaching, put to death by a mob; that others of its ad-herents lost their lives by the same lawless violence; that they were forcibly expelled, in a body, from the country in which they first grew up; while, now that they have been chased into a solitary recess in the midst of a desert, many in this country openly declare that it would be right (only that it is not convenient) to send an expedition against them, and compel them by force to conform to the opinions of other people."
Cover of the book "Irreversible Damage - The Transgender Craze Seducing Our Daugh-ters by Abigal Shrier." Photo Wikipedia.
Mill's main principle is that anyone can do with his own life as he sees fit, but only to the extent that it does not harm others. But he explicitly exempts children and the mentally weak from this rule: "It is, perhaps, hardly necessary to say that this doctrine is meant to apply only to human beings in the maturity of their faculties. We are not speaking of children, or of young persons below the age which the law may fix as that of manhood or womanhood. Those who are still in a state to require being taken care of by others, must be protected against their own actions as well as against external injury.
7. PRO Demokrati
If Mill had lived and been able to respond to this objection, he would have partially agreed. He did not intend to deny the just authority of a democratic majority. It must simply be the majority who must prove and make probable that their decisions are necessary and fair to the society as a whole.
A man becomes a woman. Photo Live Journal
In modern times, the shocking dis-covery has been made that some boys are in fact girls who are trap-ped in a boy's body, and some girls are in fact boys who have - by a biological accident - got a comple-tely wrong body at birth.
Elvis Presley (1935-1977) died at the age of 42. His widow Priscilla tells in a new HBO documentary that he well knew what his big drug abuse would lead to. Photo imgur.com.
Almost every time a famous singer or actor in the US dies, we are told that the cause of death was over-dose. In American films, one can experience that it is described that when the main characters really want to let themselves go, then it will be something with drugs. It is sometimes pictured as liberated and a kind of stand against an un-fair world.
Junkie. Foto ShurikLight Twitterissa.
Now one could imagine that the re-sponsibility for controlling this kind of consumption is transferred from the authority of society to the indi-vidual's own authority, so that the individual must control his con-sumption, as the individual men for millennia themselves have control-led their alcohol consumption. They can argue that it will be in full accordance with Mill's idea that individuals should have the free-dom to live their lives as they wish, as long as they do not harm ot-hers.
Mormon-family. Photo sfw.so.
Mill believed that the majority should only interfere in the affairs of a minority when their behavior is or will be detrimental to society as a whole. But this raises a difficult problem that can and probably will involve subjectivism: How can one know whether a particular behavior is or will be harmful to society as a whole? Ultimately, it will be the ma-jority that alone decides which be-haviors can be allowed and which cannot. From a real political point of view, minorities will thus only be as secure as the majority allows them to be, and there are in reality no areas of human behavior that are immune to the majority's poli-tical decisions.
A man apparently becomes a wo-man." Photo temperaturka
To influence underage boys and girls to believe that they really are of a different sex is exessive child abuse. Irreversible hormone treat-ments and surgeries will harm the children for the rest of their lives making their lives into tragedies.
Gender change operation." Foto Stolica-s.
In the real biological world, almost every species on Earth reproduce by sexual reproduction - including humans. All individuals are either male or female from birth to death. Only earthworms and snails and other very low developed animals can change sex according to the conditions.
Only very simple animals can change sex according to the circumstances - for example earthworms and snails. Photo Yandex Zen.
A boy who has his precious remo-ved by surgery does not become a woman. He just becomes a man without a penis.
Ecstasy pills. Photo Sverige Radio.
Most of the drugs are addictive, some to an extreme degree, and an increased number of users will increase crime, as users will des-perately want to raise money for their next fix.
Cannabis Sativa, popularly cal-led the hemp plant. Photo Unge og Rusmidler.
Even use of cannabis causes let-hargy and irritability, with conse-quent inferior performance at school and at work - to the detri-ment of society as a whole.
A Chinese emperor with some of his wives - from a movie. Photo Dictat.net.
In Chinese history and literature, there are many stories of older wi-ves, who banded together and kil-led the youngest or the most beautiful-looking fellow-wife.
8. LitteraturOn Liberty by John Stuart Mill I Utilitarianism
On Liberty by John Stuart Mill II Utilitarianism
On Liberty by John Stuart Mill III Utilitarianism
On Liberty by John Stuart Mill IV Utilitarianism
On Liberty by John Stuart Mill V Utilitarianism
"Was Democracy just a moment? af Robert D. Kaplan The Atlantic Online
United Nations Human rights Treaty Bodies Status of Ratification United Nations Human Rights.
Rammeafgørelse om bekæmpelse af visse former for og tilkendegivelser af racisme og fremmedhad ved hjælp af straffelovgivningen Eur-Lex
The European Parliament approves temporary regulations against child sexual abuse on the Internet Pledge Times
Facebook Censorship Board Member: Free Speech Is Not A Human Right The Federalist.