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6. TAT and Test af Ambition Level

9. MBTI

The Art of Passing a Personality Test

8. Lüscher's Color Personality Test

1. Introduction 2. Lüscher Color Test
3. Basic and Auxiliary colors 4. Basic Colors
5. Auxiliary Colors 6. Sequence
7. The Work Group 8. Rejection of Basic Colors
9. Significance of Each Color 10. Color Pairs
11. Lücher's x Table 12. Lücher's +/- Table
13. To Pass a Lüscher Test 14. Abstract Paintings
15. Optical Illusions 16. Literature

1. Introduction

It is believed that man's relationship with colors was founded during the development of the human race, once upon a time at the end of the tertiary period. It has been shown that the sunset colors have a soothing effect on humans. The sunrise colors have the opposite effect.

When our distant ancestors sat in front of the cave in the dusk and viewed the sunset, they relaxed. The sunset colors, dark blue, dark green, orange and violet made the heart rate and blood pressure to fall. Another day they had managed to find food and avoid the saber cat's sharp teeth.

The warm colors of the sunset and The golden sky of the sunrise

Left: The warm colors of the sunset..
Right: The golden sky of the sunrise.

In the morning when it brightened in the east, and the sky was colored yellow, they felt that a new day was threatening, their pulse and blood pressure rose, and they looked vigilantly around. That's why yellow is used as the warning color.

The color red, as blood, is associated with commitment, passion and struggle.

Green represents tough endurance. People who prefer green can compromise, but they never let their goal out of sight.

2. Traditional Lüscher Color Test

Lüschers color sample

The Lüschers colors for the ordinary Lüscher test.

The ordinary Lüscher test is carried out by placing the eight cards of different colors in front of the test subject. He is asked to choose the color, he likes best and take this card off. Then he chooses among the remaining cards the color, which he now like best, and thus he continues until all the cards have been taken.

Then all the cards are placed on the table again, and the whole procedure is repeated.

In case of doubt, the psychologist will emphasize the second time because it is considered to be more impulsive.

A test result, where the first and second time are exactly identical or almost identical, will be interpreted as "emotional inflexibility and rigid attitude to life".

There is also an extended Lüscher color test, which includes many more cards and probably more complex rules of interpretation. But we think that if you are able to pass an ordinary Lüscher test as described below, you will also be reasonably well prepared to pass the extended test.

3. Basic Colors and Auxiliary colors

The Lüscher test distinguishes between basic colors and auxiliary colors. The basic colors represent mainly good personal features, while the auxiliary colors represent less good personality features.

The basic colors are blue, green, red and yellow, while the auxiliary colors are grey, violet, brown and black.

If a test person does not have the four basic colors among his five first choices, it will indicate some psychological problems. According to Lüscher, a person who is healthy, normal balanced and free of conflicts and repressions, necessarily must have the four basic colors among his first five choices.

For example, if he does not have yellow among his top five colors, it will indicate that he is short of spontaneity or the possibility of spontaneity, maybe he believes that spontaneity will not benefit him in his present situation.

Lüscher color test

Lüscher Color Test by Dr. Max Lüscher published by Sphinx in 1969. Edited by Ian Scott on the basis of original German texts.

Preference for the so-called achromatic auxiliary colors, grey, brown or black, indicates a negative attitude toward life. If one of these colors appears as one of the first three choices, it will suggest a special form of anxiety compensating behavior that is not normal.

The test subject must not be influenced by the colors of clothes, which he thinks would suit him, or what color of car he prefers. He must only consider the colors that lie in front of him.

It can not be denied that colors affect our psyche. There is something about it.

But the problem with the test is probably that, in general, it is not possible for test subjects to abstract completely from the colors of their favorite clothes, cars and furniture and colors that represent their dreams and aspirations. For example, someone wants to support efforts to preserve the rainforest, what makes them pick green. Someone is active in the home defense army or dreaming about a military career, which causes them to pick out typical camouflage colors, green, grey or brown. A yachtsman might prefer blue. Some dream of a business career and envisions black suits and black Mercedes, which causes them to choose black. One is in love with a girl, last seen in a red dress, and therefore prefer red, and so on.

It must be said that the Lüscher colors are some pretty muddled colors, which it is difficult really to like.

4. Basic Colors

- Lüscher blue is a very dark shade, as it is imagined the night sky looks like just after sunset, a mixture of blue-black and violet.
- The green is also a fairly dark shade, it is also called grey-turquoise. It is far from the color of the newly sprouted beech forest that we love.
- Lüscher red is actually not at all red. It is orange, and so it is also called so in much Lüscher literature. In no way, it is red as blood.
- Only yellow is a clear and beautiful color.

5. Auxiliary Colors

- Violet is a shade between blue-red and violet-red.
- Brown is a light reddish brown.
- The grey color contains a little brown.
- Black is truly black.

Each color is identified by a number, which will be used as input for interpretation tables provided. The numbers are thus very important for the understanding of the test.

Lüscher grċ Lüscher blċ Lüscher grĝn Lüscher orange Lüscher gul Lüscher violet Lüscher brun Lüscher sort

You can try to remember them by that first comes grey, which signifies indifference, either plus or minus, of course, it has number 0. Then come the four important basic colors, first the noble blue and then the three working eager colors, green, orange and yellow; and the line is ended with violet, brown and black. Black, of course, comes last as it is not a true color.

The numbers allow a very systematic and mathematical treatment of test input, and this enables computer programming. Therefore we will most likely come to hear more to color test in the future. It has the properties that a test should have, quick and inexpensive. Simply place test person in front of a computer, and a few minutes later a result can be printed out.

6. The Significance of the Chosen Sequence

Let us first imagine that a test person chooses only one time and comes to the following sequence from left to right:

3
+

1
+

5
x

4
x

2
=

6
=

0
-

7
-

For a start, the test-input is divided into 4 groups market +, x, = and -.

The two first selected form the first group, marked +, representing what the test subject is striving for. It is seen in this example that orange (3) and blue (1) are in the + group. This means that the test person strives for activity (orange) to lead to peace and calmness and cooperation (blue).

The two next selected form the second group, labeled x, representing the test subject's condition right now. It is seen that the group consists of violet (5) and yellow (4). This will mean that the test person right now is in a state of sensitivity and intuitive understanding (violet), where he unfolds imagination (yellow) together with like-minded people.

The colors chosen as numbers 5 and 6 constitute the third group, marked =, representing the qualities that the test person is not using right now and to which he is indifferent. They are, so to speak, in reserve. Green (2) and brown (6) are in this group. This implies that he feels that tough endurance (green) and physical well-being (brown) are not relevant to him right now.

The last two selected form the fourth group, marked -, representing the qualities that the person actively rejects. In this position he has gray (0) and black (7). This means that he rejects the anonymous and neutral role, which is represented by grey (0) as well as the total emptiness and denial of life, which is represented by black (7).

7. The Work Group

Three of the four basic colors have connection with the ability to maintain optimal activity over a longer period. These are green (2), red (3) and yellow (4). Any combination of these three colors in succession is called a work group. If those 3 colors are chosen in succession and at the beginning of the sequence, it would indicate that this person will do his job properly and well integrated.

Lüscher work group

Lüscher work group.

The basic color blue(1) is a more laid-back color that is not connected with work. It represents peace and harmony, it is passive and calming.

The personal motivation, with which a person solves his tasks, can be seen by the color that he chooses first in the work group.

- If green is chosen first, then the person wants to complete the task in order to increase his self-respect and his reputation among other.

- If orange is selected first in the working group, the person wants to win victory, it is to complete a task, he has set himself as a goal and experience the satisfaction, which it is to change something so that it better suits oneself.

- If yellow is selected first in this group the person wants to experience the spontaneous joy that it is to throw himself into something that interests him.

If a work group moves further to the right or becomes dissolved by the second choice, it would indicate that the person may not be very persistent in connection with work.

8. Rejection of Basic Colors - Anxiety and Compensation

As mentioned above, blue, green, red and yellow are called basic colors.

The four basic colors represent basic psychological needs. At a normal test person, they should, therefore, show up at the beginning of the sequence or at least within the first five places. If this is not the case, it indicates a certain mental or physical deviation. The further back the basic color is, the more severe is the deviation.

A basic color, which in this way is located further back than a fifth place, represents a not satisfied need, which will be a source of a feeling of loss and deprivation, which leads to anxiety.

A feeling of anxiety due to unsatisfied psychological needs are often suppressed as emotional disagreeable so that it only recognizes as a vague unrest.

Within the discipline of psychology, it is fundamental that where there are unsatisfied needs, there's anxiety and thus compensatory behavior that is excessive and obsessive. The compensatory behavior will in such cases be represented by the colors of the first places. The compensatory behavior will be in accordance with the color, but it will be excessive and obsessive.

As mentioned above, preference for the achromatic colors, grey, brown and black will be suggesting a negative attitude to life. If any of these colors occur in one of the first three places, it will suggest a special form of anxiety compensating behavior that is not normal.

Let us take an example - An executive vice president in a large international company, 54 years, he is married. Making it simple for the sake of teaching, we consider only his second choice. It is considered to be the most impulsive and thus the most true:

1
+
Blue

0
+
Grey

2
x
Green

3
x
Red

6
=
Brown

5
=
Violet

7
-
Black

4
-
Yellow

Note that yellow(4) has been selected in the eighth place, which indicates that he actively rejects spontaneity. Perhaps he believes that spontaneity may harm him in his current position, he might accidentally come to say what he meant. Grey(0) in the second place suggests that he wants to stay a little in the background and not invoke too much attention.

Rejected yellow leads to discouragement, irritability, and distrust of others motifs. The rejected yellow gives him a sense of loss and thus anxiety, which leads to compensatory behavior, which is here represented by blue(1), which is his first choice.

Rejected yellow and compensating blue indicates that he is longing for a peaceful and quiet environment and a harmonious relationship with others. He is perhaps too agreeable and tolerant in situations that require a firm hand; he sticks to the familiar, and he clings to his stuff and to a traditional way of doing things. He is not willing to engage in any kind of risk or gambling. If it goes really bad at work or at home, he will most likely become sick. (blue as compensation as need to recover) (Lüschers Color Test page 87)

It only takes a few minutes to fill out a color test, but as you can see, it can lead to very extensive interpretations. The above mentioned are only a small selection of the psychological report on the interpretation of the executive vice president's color test.

9. The Significance of Each Color

Grey(0)

Grey - not significant area



Grey occurs statistically most frequently in the sixth position. It can occur also in the fifth or 7 position without being abnormal, but in all other positions, it will be psychologically significant.

A prvat detective in grey

A private detective in grey.

Grey is not a color, it is neither light nor dark, it is completely free of stimulus and psychological tendencies. The color grey signals emotional coolness.

Whoever chooses grey in the first position wishes to remain free of obligations, and not involved. He attends only mechanically and artificially in social contexts. Grey in the first place is completely compensating, which arises from the anxiety that comes from the rejected colors.

A person who chooses grey in second place divides the world. One part consists of the compensating and exaggerated area represented by the color in the first place. The second part consists essentially of all the other options, as represented by the colors that he defends himself against or suppresses for anxiety that he could become involved in them. However, it is like this that the color in the third position following the grey in the second position represents the only way he wants to experience. He is short of ability to act on immediate experiences and has a feeling of inner meaninglessness.

Even with grey in the third position is the imbalance between the favorite colors in the two first places and the colors after the grey so loaded with tension that the first two colors should be interpreted as compensations and thus obsessive substitutes for imperfections or defects, and the anxiety arising from them. For example, if the first two colors are 3 - 4 (orange - yellow), then it means that he compensates for his anxiety through expansive activity. He will have to continuously expand his radius of action and still experience something new in order to convince himself that something is happening. Basically, there is nothing that really means something to him, but he does not know, and he has the greatest aversion finding out. In order to soothe his anxiety and uneasiness, he seeks continuously new experiences.

The person, who chooses grey in eighth position rejects non-involvement. He wants to participate in everything, with the result that others find him curious and intrusive. He is not afraid to commit himself, because he does not want to miss anything.

Blue(1)

Blue - not significant area



Blue is psychologically significant if it not occurs in any of the first four places.

Blue represents depth of emotions and concern for the self. It is a conservative color that indicates a preference for the well-known.

A dark blue sky after sunset

A dark blue sky after sunset.

Dark blue represents total peace. Blood pressure and pulse rate drops and your body prepares itself for relaxation and recharging. The need for this color increases with disease and exhaustion. Blue represents social ties, social cohesion and sense of belonging. "Blue is loyalty, " it is said.

Dark blue is a slightly leaned back color. It is often preferred by overweight persons.

The person who chooses blue in the first position wants emotional peace, harmony, contentment, peace in his soul and an ethical attitude to life. He needs to feel confidence in people, who are close to him, and feel that they trust him. A person who chooses blue, want calmness and orderly sur-roundings. He may also choose blue in the first position from a physical need for rest and relaxation and the opportunity to regenerate.

When blue is rejected, that is selected in the sixth, seventh or eighth position, it would indicate that the need for peace of mind and trust in close relations are not satisfied, which is a cause of anxiety. Maybe the person rejects close relationships with colleagues and family because he finds them boring, restrictive, depressing and oppressive. He wants to escape. Perhaps he does it in real life, changes jobs or gets a divorce. However, if he can not escape physically, he can do it mentally by fleeing into one or another compensatory activity. Rejected blue means, therefore, a desire to "liberate oneself from the shackles", which can result in restlessness and emotional turmoil.

Rejected blue can result in a compensatory choice of green. It is often seen in young people, who want to free themselves from family.

Rejected blue can also mean that the person chooses orange in the first position as compensation. This choice may indicate that the person wants to escape from his dull life by passionate behavior and or by sexual promiscuity, it's called the Don Juan complex. If the person can not accept sexual promiscuity as compensation, he may choose to embark on perilous activity, for example, mountain climbing, racing or similar.

A person can reject blue and choose yellow as compensation. This choice will indicate that the person is restlessly searching for a solution to his problems. He can search for practical solutions or seek philosophical and religious ways to relieve his situation.

Green(2)

Green - not significant area



Green is psychologically significant when it does not occurs in second, third or fourth position.

Green expresses itself psychologically as the will in action, as endurance and perseverance. Passion for green indicates stable attitudes and constant self-consciousness and in particular, resistance to change.

A green forest

A green forest.

A tendency to choose green represents a sense of self-controlled superiority, a feeling of having control over things. He may have many ways to exercise control. For example particular care in checking and confirming facts, very accurate memory and a strong demand for logical consistency. He places his own opinions in focus and justifies them as fundamental and immutable principles. He is inclined to moralize and teach others. He can compromise, but he will never forget his goals.

A person who chooses green in the first position wants to maintain an idealized image of himself through the recognition, he expects because of his wealth, his superior physique, his intellect or his superior cultural level. He needs credit for sticking to his opinions and principles and get it in his way despite resistance.

The person, who chooses green in the sixth, seventh or eighth position wants the same, but he feels weakened by the resistance, he has met and feels weak due to lack of recognition. Rejected green means "fear of breaking away from the tensions caused by lack of recognition". Loss of self-resilience and endurance, fear of loss of reputation and even the ability to confirm himself, all of this creates such a concern for possible failure, that he places all the blame on others and can, therefore, show a biting and disparaging attitude towards the outside world.

Rejected green can be compensated with blue in the first place. Persons, who choose this, are searching for a peaceful haven, where they no longer have to strain themselves in order to maintain their position and reputation.

A person can reject green and compensate with orange in the first position. Rejected green in itself indicates an irritated state of mind with high tension, which can lead to loss of self-control. Choosing compensating orange in the first position will further mean a desire for excitement and stimulation. This can together lead to violent uncontrolled temperament outbreak, high blood pressure and change in cardiac functions, at worst, incoherent speech and partial loss of consciousness.

Rejected green can also be compensated with yellow in the first place. This combination represents an "escape to freedom," an attempt to divert attention from an imminent collapse of health, with travels, new hobbies and so on.

Orange(3)

Orange - not significant area



Orange is also called red. It is psychologically significant if it does not occur in one of the first three positions.

Orange represents willpower and strong emotions, also for others.

Orange is an expression of vital force, it increases heart rate, blood pressure and breathing. Orange represents the desire for results and success, it reflects a strong desire for activities that gives intensity and rich experiences. It represents the impulse to action and the will to win in sports, combat, and love and enterprising productivity.

acrylgemalde Günther Roth - www.gemaeldegalerie-roth.eu

Acryl painting by Günther Roth - www.gemaeldegalerie-roth.eu.

The person, who chooses orange in the first position, wants intensity in experiences and wholeness in life. What forms these activities will take - cooperation, leadership, artistic and creative expression, eroticism or excessive activity is mainly determined by the color following the orange.

Where orange is chosen in the first place, when it is selected for its own sake and not as compensation for other rejected basic colors, it suggests a controlled sexual desire with occasional outbreaks of impulsive sexual activity - the reasonable faithful partner, who yet sometimes gives in to temptations without meaning anything special.

However, where orange is selected in the first position as compensation for the anxiety, which other rejected basic colors represent, the sex drive is very strong, but also the ability to find satisfaction is limited by the selfishness that in a obsessive way requires conquests, which can offer varying experiences; which leads to sexual experimentation, promiscuity and regular infidelity. As nymphomaniacs and satyrs, they can be very active, but they never ever get really deep satisfaction in sexuality.

When orange is chosen in third or fourth position, sexuality is more restricted, the person wants to limit intercourses to a partner, who has come to understand his needs and wishes.

When orange is chosen in fifth position sexuality has been restricted.

Rejected orange, which means orange chosen in the sixth, seventh or eighth position, indicates that sexuality largely has disappeared or become strictly monitored, or the individual has become impotent or frigid.

The person, who rejects orange, is already in a state of overstimulation, he becomes easily irritated, either because he lacks vitality or because he feels burdened by almost insurmountable difficulties. He feels that the sur-roundings are dangerous and out of control. In this situation, orange does not seem to strengthen but to threat. Rejected orange means therefore: "seeking protection against anything that can excite, annoy or weaken further."

Normally blue is chosen in the first position as compensation for denied orange because peace and harmony are needed as a "nerve pill". Often this combination is accompanied by a masochistic clinging to a sexual partner, with an experience of not being loved. This combination of rejected orange and blue compensation also occurs frequently at leaders in business, who are suffering from frustration and anxiety and is about to incur a heart problem.

The combination of rejected orange and compensating green is rare. A person who tries to get through physical and mental fatigue using only willpower will compensate with green in the first position.

More frequently it is seen that yellow is chosen in the first position as compensation for rejected orange. In which case it indicates a desperate search for a way out.

Yellow(4)

Yellow - not significant area



Yellow is psychologically significant when it does not occur in the second, third, fourth or fifth place.

Yellow represents spontaneity and concern for others.

Yellow expresses unlimited expansiveness, a relaxation or loosening up. Yellow symbolizes cheerfulness, relief from burdens, problems, pesterings and restrictions.

Green is the perseverance, yellow is change. Green is tension, yellow is relaxation. Between these two poles, there is a conflict that arises out of their incompatibility. Here green's ambitions, narcissism and demands for prestige with yellow's hopeful search for happy experiences and adventures. The "yellow" person can be like an enterprising whirlwind, but the whirls come in unpredictable pulses.

Yellow Submarine by the Beatles

Yellow Submarine by the Beatles.

When yellow is chosen in the first position, it indicates a desire for relaxation and hope or expectation of greater happiness, and it suggests some conflicts that need to be resolved. This hope for happiness in all its numerous forms, ranging from sexual experiences to philosophies that offer information and perfection, is always directed toward the future. Yellow presses forward toward the new, modern and developing.

A person, who rejects yellow and places it in the sixth, seventh or eighth position, has been disappointed in his expectations and feels empty, isolated and lonely. He sees the spontaneity and quest for adventure, which yellow represents, as irrelevant and superficial. Rejected yellow suggests that disappointment has led to a simmering rebellion. This rebellion can express itself as irritability, pessimism and suspicion towards others and their intentions. Rejected yellow means, therefore: "trying to protect oneself against isolation and further losses and disappoint-ments."

Usually blue is selected in the first position as compensation for rejected yellow. This combination indicates a desire for peace and calmness and a clinging to the familiar.

A person, who rejects yellow, can also choose green in the first position. It can then suggest that he tries to escape his hopeless situation by striving for the security that can be offered by prestige and position.

If rejected yellow is compensated with orange in the first position it will indicate that he seeks to escape his feelings of disappointment and isolation by seeking intense experiences and adventures - especially exaggerated sexual adventures.

Violet(5)

Violet - not significant area



Violet is psychologically significant when it occurs in the first or eighth position. It does not apply to pregnant women and teenagers.

The person who prefers violet, wish for a magic relation to reality. He wants to abolish the difference between subject and object, between cause and effect, and make his world a magical and intuitive wholeness. He feels that everything that can be imagined and dreamed are also a form of reality.

Passion for violet can indicate a desire for an intimate erotic fusion with another or a desire for an intuitive and mystical mutual understanding.

Violet represents a deep introvert religiosity. The color is preferred by teenagers, pregnant women, homosexuals of both sexes and people who have problems with the thyroid gland.

violet-Le monde de samara-love

Violet - Le Monde de Samara - Love.

Out of 1600 school children, 75% preferred violet. That children choose violet shows that they think the world is a magical place, where everything is possible. Teen-agers prefer violet because of their emotional confusion and immaturity.

Surveys have shown that the hormonal activity during pregnancy often leads to a passion for violet.

Homosexuals often show their emotional insecurity by preferring violet as compensation for rejected basic colors. Their emotional fear causes them to create a fairytale world around them, which they hope will last as long as they have each other.

Persons, who have problems with the thyroid gland, often prefer violet. This is especially true when the problem is psychosomatic and not caused by a shortage of iodine. Too much activity in the thyroid gland is for such persons caused by long time-stress, shock, or that they during their childhood, where the emotions were very unstable, have been exposed to excessive fear and anxiety. Such persons need special understanding and tenderness that can relieve their fears.

In the case that a person prefers violet in the first place, it must be investigated closer. Is it caused by immaturity, sexual deviations or gland problems? If it is immaturity, then this person must be expected to have trouble distinguishing the real practical world from his wishful imaginations.

People who prefer violet, want to be accepted because of their charm and charisma, for their wonderful behavior and because of their winning personality. They are sensitive and appreciative, but they have no desire to engage in excessive responsibility in relation to other.

When Violet occurs in the eighth place, the person has totally rejected any desire for a mystical intimacy with another person, because it is not possible or appropriate in his present situation. This will result in an immediate reluctance to commit himself in relation to other people or tasks, until he knows more exactly, what that relationship will imply. At the same time, the need for an intuitive and immediate understanding with another person is transferred to ideas and objects that are not human, which promotes the aesthetic sense and scientific interest.

Brown(6)

Brown - not significant area



Brown is psychologically significant if it does not occur in the fifth, sixth or seventh place.

Brown represents physical sensitivity. Its position in the row gives a clue about, what the test person feels on her body. In case of physical discomfort or illness, brown begins to move forward in the rank.

Painting by Vasiliy Polenov - a sick girl

Painting by Vasiliy Polenov - a sick girl.

Refugees and other uprooted persons, who have no place to relax and no prospect of physical satisfaction, will often place brown at the beginning of the series. This was especially true for those, who were refugees during and after WWII. Not because they were especially physically sensitive, but because they could not find peace and security anywhere.

Brown represents the need for roots, a home, a family or other social affiliation.

If brown occurs in the first half of the sequence and especially in one of the first two places, it indicates an increased need for physical rest and satisfaction, and relief from a problem, which causes concern. It may be a physical disease or defect, it may be an atmosphere of conflict and insecurity or other problems, which the person feels that he is unable to manage.

When Brown is placed in an eighth place, the need for relaxed comfort has been completely suppressed. In this situation, the person will consider physical wellbeing and sensual satisfaction as weaknesses that he presently cannot afford.

The person, who in this way rejects brown, wants others to see him as a steel man having no need for sociability, delicious food, good wine and a good long sleep in a warm bed. Such a reckless oppression of the ability to enjoy the sensual pleasures of life can lead to anxiety, which will require compensation, including the possibility of obsessive and exaggerated sexual activity.

Black(7)

Black - not significant area



Black is psychologically significant when it occurs in any other places than the eighth place.

Black represents the absolute limit of life, its final. That a person prefers black means that he rejects everything in a protest against a situation he considers as hopeless, a protest against life and fate.

Landscape in black and white

Landscape in black and white.

Black represents emptiness and annihilation, it represents denial, absolute giving up or abandonment.

The person, who chooses black in the first position, wants to deny everything. He is stubbornly protesting against status quo which in his opinion is not, as it should be. He protests against fate, certainly against his own, and behaves probably prematurely and unwise in this protest.

If black is chosen in the second position, it indicates, that the person is willing to give up everything, provided he gets, what is represented by the color of the first position.

- If orange is chosen before black, it suggests that if the person will have fulfilled his exaggerated wishes, then he will renounce everything else.
- If, for example, blue is in the first position before black, it indicates that only if the person gets peace and harmony, he will renounce everything else.
- If yellow appears in the first position with black in the second, it will suggest that the person expects that a dramatic and disaster-like action will put an end to his problems.
- With grey in the first position before black, it indicates that the person expects to find protection against the intolerable situation through total non-commitment.

With black in the third position is indicated that the person will refrain from everything else, if only he gets, what is represented by the two colors in the first and second position.

Black in the eighth position is the psychologically most normal and represents a desire not to reject anything and keep control of own actions.

10. Lüschers Color Pairs

Lüscher color theory operates with something called "pair". That means two colors chosen after each other in both first and second round.

Let us say a person has chosen colors in the following order in the first and second round:

Two consecutive choices

Two consecutive choices

If a color at the second choice are still placed next to the color it was next to at the first choice, even though they may change position and order, then a pair exists and this or these pairs are marked with a circle and their relevant function symbol.

Example of giving functions of pairs

Example of giving functions of pairs

It can be seen that in addition to the single color 3 (orange) the pairs present here are: (1-5)/(5-1), (4-2), (2-6) and (0-7)/(7-0 ).

Example of function assignment of numbers common to two pairs

If it happens that two pairs with different functions have a number in common, this number is marked with both symbols.

In case of doubt, the result of the second choice is used, which results in the row: 3, (5-1), (4-2), (2-6), (7-0).

Above we showed how a choice (8 cards - once) could very easily be divided into four groups of 2 numbers marked respectively:

+ which represents what the person longs for and strives for.
x which represents the situation right now.
= which represents properties which he is indifferent to.
- which represents emotions and abilities that he feels antipathy towards.

However, due to the introduction of pairs, we now need to make the function assignment a little more complicated.

In the presence of pairs the allocation of function symbols to be done according to the following algorithm:

1. The first pair (or single number) to be marked: +

2. The second pair (or single number) to be marked: x

3. The last pair (or single number) to be marked: -

4. The rest to be marked: =

Which in the example shown above produces the row:

+red(3)
x(violet(5)-blue(1))
=(yellow(4)-green(2)) and =(green(2)-brown(6))
-(sort(7)-grey(0))

+Red(3) means, interpreted according to Lücher's tables, that the test person dreams of and longs for "(3) action and to live life to the fullest." His choice of red indicates that he wants to be a winning type, who will create results. He wants to see his plans come true. He wants to be energetic and hardworking.

The pair x(Violet(5) and blue(1)) must mean that the test person right now "(5) in an intuitive and mysterious atmosphere (1) enjoys a relaxed relationship with others."

The pair =(yellow(4) and green(2)) means "he is indifferent to showing that he is (4) curious and observant and seeks new paths thereby attaining (2) position and prestige." It suggests that he has turned his attention to the actual problems and does not worry so much about demonstrating his ingenuity and creativity to his superiors.

The pair =(Green(2) and brown(6)) can be interpreted: "he does not worry (2) about his reputation, but will seek to get the best out of the situation even if he feels (6) a certain exhaustion".

The pair -(Black(7) and gray(0)) means that the test person despises and intensely suppresses any feeling of "(7) emptiness and meaninglessness by (1) wanting to engage and do so in a visible, non-discreet way." All three interpretations are similar to Lücher's interpretations in his tables.

11. Lücher's x Table

slash
Grey
0
Blue
1
Green
2
Red
3
Yellow
4
Violet
5
Brown
6
Black
7
Grey
0
He is in a relatively inactive and static state. A conflict prevents him from having peace of mind. He cannot achieve a relationship with the desired degree of mutual affection and under-standing
He is in a very difficult situation, but he is trying to hold on to his goals. Feels that it is necessary to hide his intentions to disarm resistance
Has difficulty making progress. His activities lead to problems and uncertainty, which make him tense and irritable
Lack of realization of hopes and inability to decide on necessary mitigating actions has led to stress
His fear of setbacks and his extreme caution make it difficult for him to achieve the closeness and identification he desires.
Cannot generate enough energy to achieve his goals. Feeling rejected, wanting more security, warm feelings and fewer problems
Under great pressure due to many demands. Trying to untangle from what limits him
Blue
1
Sensitive and under-standing, but under some pressure. Need to settle something with a close person
Acts in a proper, methodical and independent manner. Needs empathetic under-standing from someone who can give him recognition and applause
Collaborates well with others but is not inclined to lead. Need a personal life in mutual under-standing without conflict
Easy to adapt. He is only at rest when he is closely attached to a person or organization where he can place his trust
Sensitive. Needs aesthetic environment or an equally sensitive and under-standing partner with whom he can share a warm closeness
Avoids effort and needs roots, security and peaceful friends
Needs close friends, but is intolerant of lack of interest from his closest freinds and his circle of acquaintan-ces. Tend to shut off to those who do not show him interest
Green
2
Defensive. Feels his position threatened. Determined to pursue his goals despite the anxiety that comes with meeting resistance
Acts in a proper, methodical and independent manner. Needs respect, recognition and under-standing from those closest to him
In a powerful position, but prone to feel that progress is being made problematic due to current difficulties. continues despite resistance
Trying to improve his position and prestige. Is dissatisfied with the current situation and considers certain improve-ments important for his self-esteem
Working to increase his image in the eyes of others to get their consent and support for his needs and desires
Working to create a solid foundation on which he can build a safe, comfortable and problem-free future that can give him respect and recognition
Pursues its goals and interests with stubborn determina-tion. Denies concessions or compromises
Red
3
Impulsive and irritable. His wishes and activities come first, and he is not sufficiently aware of the consequen-ces. This leads to or is due to stress and conflict
Collaborates with others but is not inclined to lead. Need a personal life in mutual under-standing without conflict
Demonstrates initiative and overcomes obstacles and difficulties. Has or wants a powerful position where he can exercise control over the events
Strong-willed and outgoing. Needs to feel that things are happening according to his wishes, otherwise irritation arises, which can lead to change-ability and superficial activities
Ready to participate in activities that provide excitement or stimulation. Want to feel cheerful
Does not feel like excessive effort (except sexuality) Feels that progress requires more than he is willing to provide. Prefers reasonable comfort and security over possible rewards due to ambition level
Feels prevented from achieving his desires and other things he considers important
Yellow
4
Looking for a solution to current problems, but find it difficult to choose the right path
Easily influenced by the sur-roundings and the feelings of others. Looking for friends with similar interests and a job who will promote this
Hoping to get an improved position and greater prestige so he can get the things he has had to do without
Active outgoing and restless. Is frustrated with the long-boredom with which things happen. It leads to irritability, change-ability and lack of perseverance when striving for a goal
Imaginative and sensitive, looking for a place where he can unfold these qualities - especially with someone with the same qualities. The interest is easily aroused by the unusual or adventurous
Insecure. Seeking roots, stability emotional security and sur-roundings that provide fewer problems
The current situation contains critical and dangerous elements that need to be clarified. This can lead to sudden ill-considered decisions. Rejects advice from others
Violet
5
Seeking a close and imminent bond in an intimate atmosphere as protection against anxiety and conflict
Seeking to share an impending intimacy in an aesthetic atmosphere of peace and tenderness
Working to increase his image in the eyes of others to get their consent and support for his needs and desires
Ready to participate in activities that provide excitement or stimulation. Want to feel cheerful
Imaginative and sensitive, looking for a place where he can unfold these qualities especially with someone with the same qualities. The interest is easily aroused by the unusual or adventurous
Sensual. Tendency to indulge in things that delight the senses but reject the tasteless, vulgar or rude
Insists on and needs a close and under-standing relationship or at least a way to satisfy an urgent need to feel identifica-tion
Brown
6
Cannot generate enough energy to achieve its goals. Feeling rejected, wanting more security, warm feelings and fewer problems.
Avoids effort and needs roots, security and peaceful friends. Maybe feeling physically ill, need caring and considerate treatment
Has difficulty living up to the demands placed on him. Think it is strenuous and wish the situation was easier
Has difficulty making progress and is not willing to use more energy. Looking for more comfortable sur-roundings where he can avoid anything disturbing
Insecure. Looking for roots, stability, emotional security and sur-roundings that provide fewer problems, but will or can not provide the necessary effort
Sensual. Tends to indulge in things that delight the senses but rejects everything tasteless, vulgar or rude
Physical illness, too much tension or emotional suffering has left its mark. His confidence has been reduced and he now needs a peaceful environment and considerate treatment in order to recover.
Black
7
Dissatis-fied. The need to flee from continued engagement in the current situation makes it an imperative to find a solution
Needs peace and quietness. Needs a close and faithful partner from whom he can demand special care and affection. If this is not met, he will probably withdraw completely
Perceives his requirements as both minimal and necessary. Sticks stubbornly to them and will admit nothing
Feels hindered in achieving his desires and other things that he considers important
The current situation contains critical and dangerous elements that need to be clarified. This can lead to sudden, ill-considered decisions
Insists on and needs a close and imminent relationship, or at least a way to satisfy an urgent need to feel identified
Physical illness, too much tension or emotional suffering has left its mark. His self-confidence is reduced and he needs peaceful sur-roundings and considerate treatment to recover

Above I have reproduced the x table from the book "Lüscher's Color Test" in simplified and abbreviated form to fit in the more concise matrix form.
The first selected color in the pair is displayed vertically and the last one horizontally.
Lüscher has similar tables for the other three functions, namely
The x table tells how the test person is feeling right now.
The + table tells what he longs for and strives to become.
The = table can tell about his potential in positive or negative direction.
The - table tells about his sources of stress.
These last three tables are not shown in this article.

A few more examples of interpretation of important pairs:

The pair "Green - Orange" represents meaningful activity and controlled initiative. With green as the first color chosen, actions will lead to greater authority and prestige for the self, leadership, management and the exercise of control.

The pair "Blue - Orange" represents cooperative enterprise and emotional fullness. It characterizes the ability to work well with colleagues for the common good for the benefit of the organization. In private, the couple represents a harmonious blend of sexuality and care. When blue is chosen before orange, it is characteristic that greater emphasis is placed on harmony and cooperation than on activity.

12. Lücher's +/- Table

The Lüscher color test has another function. It is called the plus-minus function (+/-). The psychologists behind the test believe that the first and last color choice provides a lot of information about the person; that is, the color that the person likes best, compared to the one he cannot stand.

The test can tell what problems the test person is struggling with right now.

A big advantage of the +/- function is that it gives access to a - albeit somewhat uncertain - personality assessment of a person based on colors without asking him to draw cards. Simply, in ordinary conversation, get an idea of what color the person loves and what color he cannot stand, and then enter the table below with these colors.

slash
Grey
0
Blue
1
Green
2
Red
3
Yellow
4
Violet
5
Brown
6
Black
7
Grey
0
Feeling anxious and restless dis-satisfaction as unfulfilled emotional demands have evoked stress. He escapes from this by not getting involved and creating a facade of peace
Has not been able to establish himself in a way that fits with his high expectations. His efforts to prove his worth have failed. He escapes by taking a defensive, uninvolved stance
Impaired vitality has made him hyper-sensitive to further stimulation and demands on him. He hides a feeling of uneasy irritation and depression. He escapes by refusing to engage
Dis-appointment over failed plans has created fear of setting new goals, this has led to anxiety. He protects himself with an attitude of reserved caution
Needs to protect himself from his own tendency to trust others. He thinks he is mis-understood. He only wants to get involved if he is sure of the honesty and sincerity of others
His desire to be respected among his friends is not satisfied, which has created anxiety. He therefore rejects sociability and normal joint activities.
Fears that his inde-pendence will be threatened if he does not protect himself from external influences. Do not want to be disturbed.
Blue
1
Needs a calm and stable surrounding to free himself from his fear that he may not reach his goals
The Attempt to deal with a situation that exceeded his abilities has created anxiety and not admitted feeling of inferiority. He tries to escape by not asserting himself and not rivaling and competing under pressure
Impaired vitality has created hyper-sensitivity to further stimulation and demands. A sense of power-lessness depresses him. He seeks to escape by giving up the fight and seeking a calm and safe environment
Dis-appointment over failed plans and fear of setting new goals have created anxiety. He seeks to escape to a peaceful and harmonious relationship that will give him recognition and protect him
Needs to protect himself from his own tendency to be too trusting to others, because he thinks he is being mis-understood and exploited. Looking for a relationship that can provide a calm and under-standing closeness and protect him from dis-appoint-ments.
Wants to be valued and respected and seeks this through a close and calm connection in mutual respect
Do not want to get involved in discussions and strife prefer to be left in peace and quietness
Green
2
Afraid that he may be prevented from getting the things he wants and therefore demands that others recognize his right to them
Anxiety and restless dis-satisfaction with unfulfilled emotional demands have evoked stress. He tries to escape by denying their existence and hiding behind a proud but illusory claim of self-sufficiency and inde-pendence
Impaired vitality has created hyper-sensitivity to further stimulation and demands. The feeling of power-lessness and frustration by not being able to control the events creates unrest, irritation and depression. He tries to escape by stubbornly sticking to his own, which often fails. Therefore, he is very sensitive to criticism and is easily hurt
Dis-appointment and fear that it is pointless to formulate new goals. Wants recognition and status but is worried about the prospects. Responds to any criticism and opposes any attempt to influence him. Trying to strengthen his position by meti-culously controlling details
Works to strengthen his position and strengthen his self-respect by critically and scientifically examining his own and others' results. Insists that everything should be clear and un-ambiguous
Needs to be valued and respected as a unique individual to increase his self-esteem and and his sense of personal dignity. Is against mediocrity and sets high ideals for himself
Strongly opposes outside interference or influence, but wants to decide for himself. Working to strengthen his own position
Red
3
The fear that he might be prevented from achieving his desires causes him to act with eager and hectic intensity
Tensions and stress are triggered by anxiety and restless dis-satisfaction with unfulfilled emotional demands. He tries to escape through intense activity aimed at personal success
Tensions arosed in an attempt to deal with a situation that exceeded his abilities has led to anxiety and non-admitted inferiority. He tries to remedy this through intense activity and insistence on getting his will. Failed self-control leads to uncontrolled outbursts of anger
Dis-appointment and fear that it is pointless to formulate new goals has led to stress and anxiety. He wants contact with like-minded people and room to develop but feels that his relations are empty. He responds with intense and zealous activity in the desire to achieve his goals at all costs.
Wants unrestricted freedom of action, but is hampered by his need for things to be done on a rational, consistent and clearly defined basis
likes action and wants to be respected and appreciated for his personal achievements
Fights against restrictions and limitations and insists on developing freely as a result of own efforts
Yellow
4
The fear that he may be prevented from having his desires fulfilled leads him to a restless search for satisfaction during the pursuit of illusory or meaningless activities.
Anxiety and restless dis-satisfaction with unfulfilled emotional needs have evoked stress. He feels mis-understood, disoriented and insecure. This drives him to seek new relationships in the hope of finding peace of mind
Tensions evoked in an attempt to deal with a situation that exceeded his abilities have led to anxiety and not admitted feeling of inferiority. Tend to blame others. Eagerly seeking solutions and prone to coercive prohibitions and desires
Unrest, un-pre-dictability, irritation due to weakened vitality and weakened resilience to further demands make him feel threatened by the circum-stances. Feeling powerless to cope with it on his own and desperately hoping that some solution will turn up
Hugely critical of the nyuvĉrende relationship, which he believes is poorly organized. Therefore looking for a solution that will clarify the situation and introduce a more acceptable degree of order and method.
Feeling under-appreciated in his current situation and looking for other sur-roundings where he has a better chance to demonstrate his worth
Feeling hampered in its development, seeks a solution that will remove these limitations
Violet
5
Afraid that he will be prevented from achieving his wishes. This causes him to unleash great charm in his dealings with others in the hope that it will make it easier for him to achieve his goals
Anxiety and restless dis-satisfaction with unfulfilled emotional needs have evoked stress. He tries to escape into an idealized atmosphere of sympathy and under-standing or seeks a replacement environment with aesthetics and beauty
Tensions evoked by an attempt to resolve a situation that exceeded his abilities have led to anxiety and not admitted feeling of inferiority. He is trying to escape from this into a world where things are more to his liking
Impaired vitality has created hyper-sensitivity to further stimulation and demands. This power-lessness creates unrest, irritation and depression. He is trying to escape into a replacement world where things are more after his desire
Dis-appointment and fear that setting new goals will only lead to setbacks has created anxiety. He is unhappy about the lack of a close relationship. He seeks to escape into a world where these dis-appoint-ments have disappeared and things are more to his liking
Very impressed with the unique and original and people with excellent qualities. Trying to imitate the qualities he admires and showing originality in his own personality
Trying to avoid criticism and prevent restrictions and limitations on his freedom of action as well as being self-determined by mobilizing great personal charm towards others
Brown
6
The fear that he will be prevented from having his wishes fulfilled increases his need for security, therefore seeking stability and sur-roundings where he can relax
Anxiety and restless dis-satisfaction with unfulfilled emotional demands have evoked significant stress. He tries to escape into a conflict-free safe anviroment where he can relax and recover
Tensions evoked by an attempt to deal with a situation that exceeded his abilities have led to anxiety and not admitted inferiority. He tries to escape to stable and safe sur-roundings where he can relax and recover free of further demands
Impaired vitality has created hyper-sensitivity to further stimulation and demands. This power-lessness inflicts on him unrest, irritability, and depression. He tries to escape to a stable and safe environment where he can relax and recover.
Dis-appointment and fear that setting new goals will only lead to further setbacks has led to anxiety. He is unhappy about the lack of a close relationship. He tries to escape to stable and safe sur-roundings where he can relax
Wants to protect himself against criticism and conflicts by entrenching himself in a stable and secure position, but tends to be critical of others and difficult to satisfy
Seeks security in a position where he is no longer bothered by demands on him
Black
7
The fear of being hindered in achieving his desires drives him to explore all kinds of experiences so that he can categorically deny that any of them have value at all. This destructive downgrade becomes his way of hiding hopelessness and a deep sense of indifference
Anxiety and restless dis-satisfaction with unfulfilled emotional demands have evoked significant stress. He responds by describing others as totally lacking under-standing and by taking a con-temptuous and scornful attitude
Tensions created in trying to deal with a situation have led to anxiety and not admitted feeling of inferiority. His inability to put his will through causes him to overreact with stubborn defiance and shift the blame for his own mistakes onto others
Impaired vitality has created hyper-sensitivity to further stimulation and demands. This power-lessness inflicts on him unrest, irritability, and depression. He responds by believing that he has been made a victim, and insists with anger and defiance in doing what he wants.
Dis-appointment and fear of that setting new goals will only lead to new setbacks, have led to anxiety, emptiness and not admitted feeling of inferiority. His un-willingness to admit this leads to a rigid and defiant attitude
His natural ability to examine everything with a critical sense has been distorted into an attitude of stern disapproval which rejects and despises regardless of the facts
The need for respect - the opportunity to play a significant role and get a name - has become an imperative. He responds by insisting on being the center of attention and refuses to play an impersonal or minor role

Above, I have reproduced the +/- table from the book "Lüscher's Color Test" in abbreviated and simplified form to fit them into the more concise matrix form.
The color that the person likes best is shown vertically and the color that he cannot tolerate is shown horizontally.

In the example above, the +/- function is (+3/-7) in the first choice and (+3 -0) in the second. Since the second choice is considered the most impulsive and thus the truest, we choose to interpret (+3/-0).

(+3/-0) (+ red/grey) suggests, according to the table in the "Lüscher Color Test", "the fear that he may be prevented from achieving his desires causes him to act with eager and hectic intensity."

13. How to Pass a Lüscher Color Test

We assume that the test is used in connection with job applications and not for example in relation to dating.

As a fundamental rule, no basic colors must occur farther back than a fifth place.

Since job search has something to do with work, it will be appropriate to keep the work group together. We can choose the work group first, followed by blue, or blue first, followed by the work group.

It's probably a good idea to start with blue to signal that we give reasonable high importance to peace and harmony.

Then one must decide the internal sequence within the work group. Orange must not be the last one. With orange first in the work group signals a leader in his infancy, green first will signal a dutiful workhorse and yellow first a creative type engaged in the basic matter. What is best, must depend on the individual applicant and the situation. It is not certain that the company is interested in future managers, maybe they only want to find somebody, who can solve their problems and do the job.

Black must unconditionally be held in the last place, everything else will signal a BZ type or suicide candidate.

That leaves grey, violet and brown in the fifth, sixth and seventh places. Grey and brown must absolutely be restricted to these places, otherwise, it will be psychological significant. If grey is brought forward, it will give psychological indications of anxiety and compensation. If brown is brought forward, it will indicate a preference for expensive restaurants, cigarettes, whiskey and naked girls (from trad. danish song), and who knows a high absence percent from work.

Violet has more degrees of freedom, but it's not a good color. If there is no pregnancy or problems with the thyroid gland, the color suggests an aesthetic personality with fear of contact with the cruel and unpredictable reality; and who knows, maybe homosexuality.

So summa sumarum, the sequence must be:

- Blue in the first place.
- Work group (orange must not be the last one).
- Violet, brown and grey should be restricted to the 5., 6. and 7. places.
- Black as the last one.

If you want to vary the sequence between first and second selection, you must make sure that the sequence, you really want to be assessed, is the second selection.

A little variation could be a good idea, as you otherwise may be labeled with "emotional inflexibility and rigid attitude to life".

14. Color Test disguised as Abstract Paintings

This abstract painting represents the pair red-green Note the pair red-blue in the center of the picture and green a little in the background - a good choice Violet represents deep introvert religiosity

Left: This abstract painting represents the pair red-green. Painting by Carl Henning Pedersen
Mid: Note the pair red-blue in the center of the picture and green a little in the background - a good choice.
Right: Violet represents deep introvert religiosity - it is not a good choice.

A cunning way to make a color test is to ask the test persons attitude to some abstract paintings, which are dominated by individual colors or color pairs.

The color pair red-green in Carl Henning Pedersen's painting is a good choice. The color pair red-blue with green a little in the background in the other abstract painting is also a good choice. The violet color in the third painting is not a good choice.

15. Optical Illusions

Optisk Illusion

Optical Illusion. The image does not move the slightest, but we are tricked by our brain into thinking that it is moving. Photo: Optical Illusion Wallpapers 1.0 for Android.

There are some types of images with built-in optical illusions. Although the details of the images do not move at all, our eyes or rather our brain will see that they move.

In general, we will see that they might move a bit.

But it said that for rapists, bank robbers and the like, a certain type of images will move lively. So whatever you see, it's probably best to say that it moves perhaps a little bit.

16. Literature

Color Quiz Com En Lüscher farve test
"Lüschers Farvetest" af dr. Max Lüscher og Ian Scott. Forlaget SphinX Publishers Copenhagen - 1991.
This article is a contribution to the debate on personality tests and Dalum Hjallese Debate Club assumes no liability for a use of the article in real life.
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