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15. Who were the Jaets?

According to the saga on the creation of the World, in the part of Snorres Yonger Edda called "Gylfaginning", the Jaets were created independently of the Aesirs descent.

A Jaet - born in the dawn of times
A Jaet - born in the dawn of times.

They were older than the Aesirs.

They were not just destructive chaos creatures, but lived in a orderly society. There were rough powerful old Jaets and beautiful female Jaets.

Snorris reasons - in the face of the church - to write down his "Edda", was that the tales on all the heathen beings, Aesirs and Jaets, Dwarfs and Elven, were necessary for the art of the "skjalds", who were the ancient poets and singers.

The Jaets are of course supernatural beings and poetic creatures. But there must, it is unthinkable otherwise, be a historical core of the stories about Jaets.

As diligent investigators, we will keep all options open until we - if ever - achieve certainty.
1. Jaet were a wider and more Original Designation of the Indo-Europeans.

2. The Jaets were a People allied with the Aesirs.

3. Jaets Descent from Older Humans Races

1. Jaet were a wider and more Original Designation of the Indo-Europeans.

The cow 
Audhumbla is licking the man Burre out from a salty stone The cow Audhumbla is licking the man Bure out from a salty stone.

I remember Jaets
born in the dawn of time,
those who once
nourished me;
nine worlds I remember
nine Jaet women,
and the widely known tree of destiny,
hidden under the ground.
(Elder Edda)

It really is true that the Jaets were a more original race than the Aesirs. Odin himself was a descendant of the Jaets.

The first in the World was Hrymer, and he was a Jaet. Then came the cow, Audhumbla. It produced the man Bure by licking on a salty stone. The Man Bure got with the Jaet woman Bestla the sons Odin, Vile and Ve. Bestla was the daughter of the Jaet Boelthorn.

Tyr was head of the Aesirs before Odin. He was also of Jaet descend. In the ballad, Hymir-kvida, on Thor's fishing trip with the Jaet Hymer, it is said that Hymer was the father of Tyr. During their visit to the Jaet they also meet Tyr's terrifying grandmother, a Jaet women with eight heads.

Heimdal was the guardian of the rainbow bridge Bifrost. Also he was of Jaet descent. Aegir was called a sea Jaet, son of the Jaet Mistblinde. He had nine daughters with his wife Ran. These nine daughters were all mothers to Heimdal.

In India are around 30 million. people, who call themselves for "Jat". They live mainly in the northwestern Punjab province.

Being a Jat has nothing to do with religion or politics. It is a question on race and ancestry.

Chaju Ram - en jat Kiran Choudhury - en jat Malika Sherawat kommer fra en konservativ Jat familie Jat Sijh
From left to right:
Chaju Ram - a Jat.
Kiran Choudhury - a Jat.
Malika Sherawat comes from a conservative Jat family.
Jat Sijh.

When a son or a daughter of a Jat family asks his parents and grandparents, how he can thank them for that they have given him a life on Earth, then they will respond that all they wish is that he should remember them and tell his children about them and their ancestors.

A Jat can be Hindu or Muslim, he can have one or another political belief. Most Jats are working with agriculture, but they can be found in all professions, for example as lawyers or businessmen.

Garhwal Rifles marcherer på La Bassee Road, Frankrig, August 1915
Garhwal Rifles is marching on La Basse Road, France, August 1915.

The englishmen used many Indian soldiers during the first and second World War, they were very mainly recruited from the Jats in the Punjab province, as they were considered to be the best soldiers.

A typical Jat has, after Indian standards, rather light skin, he is tall and strong with caucasian features. In India, they are considered as industrious and rather fast-witted.

In general, the "Jats" consider themselves as descendants of the "Yuti" people, who came from north og India from the area around the Jaxartes river and in fifth century crossed Indus, as it is narrated by the French historian, De Guignes (1721 to 1800).

We recall that in "Han shu" as translated by Daniel C. Waugh (see classical text) in the "Han Histories" the "Yuezhi" is called for "Yue-te" (pronounced ju-te). In the Xiongnu king Moduns message to the Chinese emperor he states:

" - you pursued the Right Sage prince, till he was driven westward into the territories of the Yue-te. There, however, heaven favoured our cause: our officers and troops were loyal and true; our horses were strong and spirited; and by slaughter, decapitation, subjugation and pacification, our army effected the complete reduction of the Yue-te; - "

Maybe it was not simply a kind of linguistic misunderstanding when "Han Shu" used the term "Yue-te" instead of "Yuezhi". "Yue-Te" may have been the general term for Indo-Europeans and "Yuezhi" might have been a specific Indo-European people.

Massageatas lived around the Aral Sea and the Jaxartes river
Massageatae lived around the Aral Sea and the Jaxartes river.

The "Jats" consider really themselves as descendants of all these Indo-European peoples, who in the past have invaded northern India. Throughout history, these were called "Jat", "Jit", "Jut" or "Jaet".

They point usually at the Massa-geata people who lived in the area around the Jaxartes river, as the first wave of conquerors. "Massa" means "large" and "Geata" is a different designation for "Jute" they say; the last is just a little hard to realize. In Danish "mass" means something like "numerous" or "great", as we know it from a "lot of money" (en masse penge) or a "mass of people" (en masse mennesker), in english it has similar meaning.

Note also that "Ta Yue-she" (Massagetae) in "Selections from the Han Narrative Histories," which is probably based on "Han Shu", originally came from the Tarim Basin, but were chased away by Xiongnu.

To understand the analogy between "Geata" and "Jaet" it is necessary to know King Alfred the Great's translation of Bede's "Historiarum adversum Pagano Libri Septem "from ca. year 418 AC from Latin into Old English. The translation is also called "Old English Orosius."

Queen Tomyris places Cyrus II's head in a jar after the victory - a painting by Alexander Zicke
Queen Tomyris places Cyrus II's head in a jar after the victory - a painting by Alexander Zicke.

He translated "Iutis", in other words "Jutes" to "Geata" and he was a contemporary, so he should know whether they were the same people (Rickfors). De Guignes has undoubtedly mentioned this, and the Indians value him very much. Alfred the Great was king of Wessex from 871 AC to 899 AC.

After Massa geata's arrival in India came "Saka", then came "Yuezhi", who in the meantime had changed its name to "Kushans", and finally came "Heptalites", also called "The White Huns". The origin of the Heptalites is somewhat unclear, but many now believe now that they were a Indo-European people akin to "Yuezhi".

Many ancient authors mention Massa Geata including the Roman geographer Strabo (lived around the year 0): "Now, the biggest part of the Scythians, as we begin at the Caspian Sea, is called" Dahae", but those, who are farther eastward, are called "Massa-geta" and "Saka", while all the others can be categorized under the name Scythians, though each people has a distinct name for themselves. They are mostly all nomads. But the best known are those who took Bactria from the Greeks. I think about "Asii", "Pasiani", "Tochari" and "Sacarauli", who originally came from the country on the other side of the Jaxartes River." (Strabo, Geography, 11.8.1)

The ancient Greek historian Herodotus reported that Massageata led by Queen Tomyris in 530 BC beated the Persian army in battle and placed Cyrus II's head in a jar.

Massa geata worshiped the sun, and sacrificed horses to their gods. Their preferred weapon was the battle axe.

The Indian "Jat" sites have a very positive attitude to the Scandinavian Jaets. "According to Professor Leake, the ancient Gothic word "Jaet" means a giant ("by which is ment nothing but a tall and strong man, a great warrior or hero.")

Jutes invaded England about 450 AC.
Jutes invaded England about 450 AC.

In many languages, an "Y" is pronounced as a Danish "J" and "u" as a Danish "y", then "Yuete", as mentioned in Han Shu will sound like "Jye-te". The country in which this people live, would then become something like "Jye-land", as we know so well (Jutland in Denmark). The Indian Jats are not blind for this fact, they think that some of their kinsmen, the part of the "Yuete" people, who did not go to India, but broke up from Asia and went to Europe, where they settled in Jutland (Jylland), in Kent and on the Isle of Wright.

The Indian writer Thakur Deshraj wrote a book on Jat History "Jat Itihas" (Hindi) (1934), "That the country of Assyria took its name from "Asiagh gotra Jats." The word "Asiagh" originates from the Sanskrit word "Asi," which means sword. According to "Kautilya" (?) the people, who lived on "Asi" (sword), were known as "Asiagh". Asiagh traveled from Asirgarh in "Malwa" (?) to Europe. Those who settled in "Jangladesh" were called "Asiagh" and those who went to Scandinavia, became known as "Asi". Jats arrived in Scandinavia around 500 BC, and their leader was Odin. - Asi Jats founded "Jut-land", as their homeland in Scandinavia. The religious Scandinavian book "Edda" mentions that the inhabitants of Scandinavia in the old days were "Jats" or "Jits", who were Aryans and came from Asirgarh. "(All directly from an Indian Jat-debate page.)

Jylland - Jye-land - Yuete-land -  Jatland - Jutland - Jytland
Jylland - Jutland - Jye-land - Yuete-land - Jatland - Jytland.

Now it is such that it is called "Indo-European" languages, because similar words can be found in different languages with similar meanings, also in both Indian and European languages. It is because that when the "Jats" and the "As" emigrated from the centre of the World, some went to India, some went east, and many traveled to Europe. They brought with them their languages but certainly also legends and poems from their common original homeland. Since then the legends have been verbally handed down from generation to generation for numerous years, but they must still contain a basic core of truth.

We remind ourselves Pompey Trogus' book XLII, which says: "Reges Tocharorum Asiani interitusque Saraucarum ","Asiani became kings of Tochari and then wiped out the king of the Saka." This must mean that the people "Tochari" chose as their kings a group of experienced and tough warriors, "Asiani", and then won victory over their enemies. As Snorri wrote about the Aesirs: "Odin was a great army man."

The Jaets were the original and most numerous. The danish poet Johan Herman Wessel was most likely right, when he wrote: "We are all Jutes in front of God".

See: Selections from the Han Narrative Histories. Search with "Yue-te" for the report about their defeat to the Xiongnu.

Sea also the Indian pages:

Professor B. S. Dhillon's: History and Study of the Jats

and: Jat people & Noun Etymology of Jat

And from a Jat Debate-page: Re: [JatHistory] B S Dhillon's book Chapter 1

In The etnic of Sakas (Scythians) - I. Piankov - Iran Chamber Society are explained the Saka emigration to India. Note that the author takes it as completely self-evident that the Asii and Tocharin are identical with "Da Yuezhi" (Great Yuezhi).

2. The Jaets were a People Allied with the Aesirs.

Another possible explanation of the identity of the Jaets is that when gods were still residing in the center of the World, they entered into an alliance with a neighboring people, whom they called Jaets.

Udgardsloke could by magic turn himself into the Giant  Skrymir - drawing by Elmer Boyd Smith
Udgard Loki could by magic turn himself into the Giant Skrymir - drawing by Elmer Boyd Smith

Many times in history it had happened that two or more people have banded together under a single king or similar authority. Just think of Denmark-Norway, Austria-Hungary, England-Scotland and Tjekko-Slovakia to name just a few examples. This must have happened often, also in early history.

Xiongnu was the dominating power on the plain. They've probably been divided in many rivalizing groups, just as the Indo-Europeans were. Many peoples, who in ethnical sense did not belong to Xiongnu were labeled under this group.

Especially the northern Xiong Now all could agree to hate. They were called "The Wild North People". The southern Xiongnu, the main group, teamed effectively up with the Chinese in a raid on "The Wild North". They came back and reported a great victory. Some say that the Northern Xiongnu on this occasion gave up. They disappeared from the eastern steppes and traveled westward to Europe, where they were known by their real name "Hun".

Udgard Loki was the king of a small isolated people in Udgard, the northern wilderness. The name "Ud" for a truly inhospitable wilderness still exists in Central Asia, nowadays associated with the Mongol "Ulan". Udgard Loki's Jaets were somewhat taller and stronger than the Aesirs, but the Aesirs were convinced that they themselves were the wisest.

Odin and his men realized that the people in Udgard was a potential ally in the political struggle for survival. The Aesirs sent a deputation to Udgard Loki, the head of the wild Northern tribe, with Thor as leader. Loke was also in the group, he was of Jaet descent, and therefore he had well placed qualifications to create a good understanding.

Thor wrestling with Elle - who really was time and aging - drawing by Frolich
Thor wrestling with Elle - who really was time and aging - drawing by Frolich.

They were well received by Udgard Loki. They were invited to take part in various friendly competitions. Unfortunately the Aesirs did not do so good. Therefore they made up different excuses; Such as that Thor had a wrestling match against time, aging and death, which he could not win, Loki had an impossible eating competition with the fire, Tjalfe had an unfair race against the thought and so on.

But the real purpose in traveling the long way to Udgard was creating a political understanding between Loki's Jaet's and the Danes of the Aesirs descent. "The Wild Northeners" were hated by everyone, especially by the Southern Xiongnu, and so politically isolated, they should have a natural interest in an alliance with the Aesirs creating an alliance with their enemy's enemy.

An alliance between Dan of Aesir's descent and the Jaets were created, but the cooperation often gave rise to frictions. As Saxo explains: "First there were some deformed monsters, as the old people called the Jaets, which was much larger and stronger than ordinary men. "

"The second kind was the first ones to stress the importance of wisdom about the laws of nature and was in possession of prophecy gift. They could not match the Jaets in size and strength, but surpassed them greatly in wisdom and ingenuity. Between them and the Jaets, there was a standing dispute about the power, until the Jaets were finally beaten, and the sorcerers not only usurped supremacy, but also got the reputation of being Gods."

Thor - Icelandic bronze figure of approx. 1000 AC
Thor - Icelandic bronze figure of approx. 1000 AC.

"The third kind was produced by interbreeding the two others," Saxo continued. "They could not nearly match the Jaets in size, or the sorcerers in wits and cunning, yet they were by them, whom they blinded by their magic, reputed as gods."

The story of "Thor visiting Udgard Loki" was the common myth that helped to bind the two peoples together, despite "dispute about power".

In the really old days, as we are now talking about, one did not mix genes with anybody. The general rule was that you had to marry one from your own people, everything else has called for the king's permission.

For example, after the Ostro-Goths' disastrous defeat against a Byzantin army in the battle at the Gallic tombstones, the survivors fled against north, up through Italy, and got refuge at the Visi-Goths in South France. The king of the Visi-Goths declared then that the families of the two peoples were free to marry into another. It was a very special event, an exception, which found its way into written history.

The Aesirs seems to have had free rein with the Jaet girls. It suggests that there has been a particularly close relationship between the two peoples.

As Saxo wrote: "The third kind was bred by mixing the other two kinds"

Gunloed was daughter of the Jaet Suttung - painting by Anders Zorn
Gunloed the daughter of the Jaet Suttung - painting by Anders Zorn.

Odin himself was very interested in Jaet women. As Boelverk he slept with the Jaet girl Gunloed; with her he bred Brage. With the Jaet woman Grid he got Vidar. Odin also had a relationship to a Jaet woman named Rind.

Freyr loved the beautiful Jaet girl Gerd. Njord married Skadi, the daughter of the Jaet Tjasse. Thor bred the son Magne with the Jaet woman Jernsaxe.

Hading, son of Gram and Signe, embraced the Jaet woman Hardgrepe, who was the daughter of the Jaet Vagnhoved.

The children af Aesirs and the Jaet women were in no way second class whore chicks. Thus Magne, the son of Thor and Jernsaxe, was appointed to recreate the world after Ragnarok. Magne was very strong, only three days old, he helped his father free, when he lay trapped under the fallen giant, Hrungnir.

The interesting thing about Hading and Hardgrepe is that they apparently loved each other somewhere in southern Russia. The Jaets and the Danes were apparantly still there together. According to Saxo, the Danish King Hading led war against King Handvan of Hellespont. It must have been the Kimmeric Hellespont between Crimea and present Ukraine.

Loke shown in an Icelandic document from the seventeenth century
Loke shown in a handwritten Icelandic document from the seventeenth century.

Another testimony of the close relationship between the two peoples is that so many Jaets lived among the Aesirs.

Aegir, the sea god, was also a Jaet, even he lived among the Aesirs. Often he invited them for celebrations. Kari was a lesser known Jaet, who also lived in Asgard, he was the god of air.

Loke, son of the Jaet Farbaute and his wife Laufey, is the most well known Jaet living among the Aesirs. Loki is a teaser, and he is very disposed to making practical jokes. No one surpasses Loke in slyness. His jokes often brought the Aesirs in trouble, but however, he saves them also off the hook again with his cunning.

Loki is the most famous among Jaets in Asgard. In ancient days he concluded a pact with Odin, the first among Aesirs. "Do you remember Odin, when in ancient days we two mixed blood ?...", he sang (From Thøger Larsen's retelling of the Edda).

As you know, one do not mix blood with family relatives (Rickfors). We can mix blood with strangers, and so we become as relatives of same blood - forever.



3. Jaets Descent from Older Humans Races

A third explanation on the identity of the Jaets could be that they were descendants of some ancient indigenous races of mankind, whom the Indo-Europeans met, when they broke up from the Middle Earth and went to its outskirts.

In Snorri Sturluson's "Edda", in the part called "Gylfaginning", he tells of the Earth: "Then Gangleri spoke:" "This is great news, I now hear. It is a great craftwork and cleverly done. How was the Earth conceived?"

"Then Har answers":" She is ring-shaped on the outside, and there round it is the deep ocean, and along the coast of the ocean they gave land to the settlements of the Jaet-kin. But on the inner Earth they made a fortress around their homes against the Jaets hostility and to their castle, they had the Jaet Ymir's eye-brows and called this castle Midgaard."

The World during the last ice age
The World during the last ice age.

In a rough outline, it must have been such that the Indo-European language and the Indo-European culture developed in the middle of the Eurasian continent. Here in the transitional area between the steppe and the forest were open areas with loose soil and sufficient rain, where arable farming could develop. Here horses and oxen have been domesticated, and here the Neolithic peoples once watched the sun, moon and stars. Here they sat around the fire listening to their ancient songs and sagas about the feats of their ancestors.

In the beginning, Europe, India and the rest of the world's outskirts were covered by impenetrable virgin forests, swamps and mountains, filled with dangerous wild animals.

When our ancestors developed axes of stone, bronze or iron, they were able to cut down the dense forests. Only then the migration from the middle of the World could begin.

The Neanderthals was an European race
The Neanderthals was an European race.

But when they arrived at the new virgin areas of the world's outskirts, they met the Jaets, the country's original inhabitants, the descendants of some old human races that had lived in these mountains, bogs and forests "always." It was the Jaet-kin, whom the gods had given settlements at the coast of the World along the deep ocean.

The Neanderthal man lived during the last ice age. They were an European race, which only existed in Europe, Middle East and possibly Western Sirbirien. They lived from 350,000 years ago until 28,000 years ago, or who knows maybe longer. It is a tremendous long time compared with known historical time.

The Neanderthal men were some giants cut in halfes, as the saying goes, close to be just as wide as they were tall. They were enormously strong with bulging arm muscles and relatively short shin legs. They were not very tall, around 165-168 cm. like so many contemporary people, but they were far stronger. Their compact body made them suitable for survival the cold during Europe's ice age.

American 
rekonstuktion of a Neanderthal woman
American rekonstuktion of a Neanderthal woman - note her muscular building and barrel-shaped body.

Powerful jaws and eyebrow arcs made a Neanderthal man to look like a bodybuilder on steroids. His barrel-shaped body had no significant waist. Huge muscles contributed to his compact appearance.

The primitive impression created by his receding chin and sloping forehead was intensified by the sight of his well developed nose and his powerful teeth.

Bone findings made in their caves show that they hunted large game, mostly those animals who lived near the Arctic areas like reindeer, bison, elk and mammoth. A spear of wood with flint tip has been found between the ribs on an elephant skeleton at Lehringen in Germany, and a spearhead found in the spine of a horse at Umm el Tlel in Syria, both have been attributed to the Neanderthal hunters' activities.

Rekonstruktion af en Neanderthal mand Rekonstruktion af en Neanderthal kvinde Rekonstrueret skelet af en neanderthal mand
Left: Reconstruction of a Neanderthal man.
Mid: Reconstruction of a Neanderthal women.
Right: Reconstructet skeleton of a neanderthal man.

They attacked the big game in coordinated small groups with two and a half meter long wooden spears. It was a very dangerous type of hunting. A study of 17 skeletons showed that they had had a total of 27 bone damages. Very few individuals became more than thirty years old. Chemical analysis of their bones have shown that they ate almost exclusively meat.

Neaderthal findings are mainly from caves and from under rock overhangs, but especially in Eastern Europe many discoveries in open country or in river valleys have been made. It is assumed that skeleton remains have been preserved better in cavities than in the open countryside. At Le Moustir a fifteen year old boy was found buried with an advanced stone axe in his hand. At Shanidar a beloved departed person 60,000 years ago was laid to rest in a cave covered with wild flowers.

Neaderthals had a brain that was at least the size of modern humans, sometimes bigger.

Reconstruction of a Neanderthal face Actor and director at the Royal Danish Theatre, John Price 
(1913 - 1996) Journalist and author Leif Davidsen
Left: Reconstruction of a Neanderthal face, notice the sloping forehead, the receding chin, the big nose, large round eyeholes and arches.
Mid: Actor and director at the Royal Danish Theatre, John Price (1913 - 1996) - An excellent performer.
Right: Journalist and author Leif Davidsen - A very intelligent and kind man.

Nobody knows, when the last full-blooded Neanderthal died. All one can say is that the latest traces from them, that have been found, have been dated to approx. 24,500 years before our time.

Genetic scientist have reported that the Neanderthal genes were completely different from modern humans, they were a side branch of human developing, and no reproduction between Neanderthal and modern man have taken place.

The famous economist John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) also had a rather sloping forehead Flute made from a bear bone found in the Neanderthal excavation Prolom II on Crimea
Left: The famous economist John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) also had a rather sloping forehead.
Right: Flute made from a bear bone found in the Neanderthal excavation Prolom II on Crimea.

Humans of the Neandethal type have disappeared from the surface of the Earth for always, it is said. They have either been brutally exterminated by the Cro Magnon man or even more modern human types, or they just died from starvation and disease, most scientists say.

But can that really be true?

Everywhere in the world where Europeans, the modern types of humans, in recent time have arrived, the men have had their pleasure with the native women.

Trappers in the American West lived with their Indian squaws, and neglected slave owners took comfort in the female black slaves. Can it really be that the Neandethal women could not be used for anything?

A red haired Neanderthal. A half blood Neanderthal excavated at La Grotte de Clamouse in France.
Left: Some scientists have found that the Neanderthal had white skin and was redhaired - maybe it is true, then one can better absorb vitamin D.
Right: A half blood Neanderthal excavated at La Grotte de Clamouse in France and examined by Erik Trinkaus.

It is known that modern humans and Neanderthal types have inhabited the same areas, at least in the Middle East and France during 20,000 to 60,000 years. Should we really imagine that there has not been any "biological contact" in all that time? So many thousand years is really very long time, it's actually easier to imagine that the genes of two species through these countless generations have been completely mixed up.

One of the main arguments against, that a genetic mix between Neanderthals and modern human types has taken place, is that the two races were genetically too far apart that they could get fertile offspring.

But recent re-test suggests that the DNA of modern humans and Neanderthal is 99.5% to almost 99.9% identical.

Prairie dogs, coyotes and wolves have been genetically isolated from one another in more than one million years and they can still produce fertile offspring.

To

left a Neanderthal skull - to the right a Cro Magnon skull
To the left a Neanderthal skull - to the right a Cro Magnon skull.

Tigers and lions have been developing isolated from each other in five million years, and they can still breed kittens with each others. Should it not have been possible for Neanderthals and modern humans to have children together, who were fertile?

The Neanderthals was an European race. If we look unbiased on reality - and each other, we will realize that precisely the Europeans are characterized by the same traits that once characterized the Neanderthals, though less pronounced.

- Europeans are known for having big noses, it had the Neanderthals too.
- Neanderthal had eyebrow-arches, most Danish men also have, feel for yourself.
- Neanderthals had sloping forehead, it is also quite common among Danes.
- European types have big eyes. The Neanderthals had large eye sockets and probably also big eyes.
- Europeans have often long skulls, it had the Neanderthals too.
- European types are strongly built with solid bones, just as the Neanderthals were.
- Europeans have white skin and often blond hair, which some also think that the Neanderthals had.

Reconstruction of the half blood Neanderthal-cro magnon boy from Abrigo do Lagar Velho in Portugal Vindija i Kroatien
Left: Reconstruction of the half blood Neanderthal-cro magnon boy from Abrigo do Lagar Velho in Portugal
Rignt. Vindija in Croatia.

It is a little odd that we should not have received any of genes, but nevertheless we seem to have retained something of their appearance?

It is interesting, that the mitochondrial DNA sequence from the Vindija Neanderthals, who have less extreme Neanderthal anatomy than the classical Neandethals and by some scientists are regarded as an intermediate stage between classic Neanderthal and modern humans, were not closer to modern humans than the rest of the Neanderthals.

Logically the Vindija samples should have been closer to modern human DNA. Our appearance and characteristics are controlled by the genes, and when the anatomical appearance is closer to modern humans, the genes are also expected to be.

Et Neanderthal kranium med tegn på kulturelt betinget kraniedeformation
A Neanderthal skull with signs of artificial skull deformation.

It could be that the "Neanderthal" deviations in the DNA sequence is caused by a third external factor, a pollution, another systematic error or perhaps a problem with the theory.

In 1982 Erik Trinkaus found in Shanidar Caves in Iraq a 45,000 years old Neanderthal skull with signs of artificial skull deformation. Such procedure is an expression of a conscious cultural action and suggests that they had a certain cultural level, perhaps with some religious ideas. Many of the much later Migration age people, Huns, Alans, Goths and probably Danes also used artificial skull deformation.

Erik Trinkaus, Ph.D., professor of anthropology at Washington University in St. Louis has for many years studied the existing findings. He is a leading proponent of the view that the Neanderthals are also among the ancestors of the Europeans.

In connection with his finding of the Lagar Velho boy, who had mixed Neanderthal - Cro Magnon features, he concludes: "First this finding disproves the extreme "Out of Africa Model", which assumes that the modern type of man came from Africa and then completely ousted all old types of humans in all regions. Instead the Lagar Velho child's anatomy supports a regional theory, which combines the anatomic modern human's origin in Africa with a mixture between this population and the old original population whom they met.

Erik Trinkaus with a Neanderthal skull
Erik Trinkaus with a Neanderthal skull.

(The African origin of early modern humans reflects in their relatively long shin bones, which are a natural feature adapted to the tropics. The Lagar Velho 1. boy however has the Neanderthals cold-adapted short shin bones).

Erik Trinkaus writes: "Lagar Velho 1. also gives us insight into the behavioral similarities between Neanderthal and early modern humans. Despite the paleontologiske evidence which indicates an anatomical difference between the two groups, there may not have been a big difference between their general adaptation to the environment, their social behavior and their means of communication, including language. For their contemporaries the Neanderthals were just another group of Pleistocene hunters and gatherers, entirely as human as themselves."

The Cro Magnon people also hunted mammoth elephants An ancient ox - A Cro Magnon cave painting
Left: Also The Cro Magnon people hunted mammoth elephants.
Right: An ancient ox - A Cro Magnon cave painting.

The Jaets may also have been descendants of a more "new" original human race.

The Cro Magnon man came from Africa to Europe at the end of last ice age. They coexisted with the Neanderthal at least 10,000 years, in some regions much longer.

Cro Magnon is almost anatomically identical to modern humans. There is some uncertainty about how high they were. Measurements vary from 170 cm. to 180 cm. on average for men. They are assumed to have been some slim dark-haired types with white skin, but it is just an assumption; they came from Africa. The Venus of Willendorf figure looks like she has a big curly hair.
Venus of Willendorf The Laussel figurine Venus from Hohle Fels Venus of Dolni Vestonice
From left to right:
Venus from Willendorf - A Cro Magnon Venus figurine.
The Laussel figurine - En Cro Magnon Venus figure.
Venus from Hohle Fels - She may be a Cro Magnon Venus figurine.
Venus from Dolni Vestonice - 27,000 years ago - Cro Magnon or Neandethal?

They were very versatile hunters. Rabbits and hares were most popular together with reindeer, foxes and horses. At a settlement in Italy they seemed to have been specialized in turtles.

They seemed to have had some pretty developed religious ideas. They are famous for their magnificent cave paintings, the caves at Lascaux are the best known. They have also left us some small woman figures called Venus figurines figurines, which somehow reflect their woman ideals.

See an explanation of Neanderthal DNA study: Fossil Hominids: mitochondrial DNA

Three critical articles, unfortunately a little old:

Neanderthal DNA Soup

Neantherthal Man - Another Look - by Bert Thompson Ph.D. (pdf)

Recovery of Neandertal mtDNA: An Evaluation - Answeringsgenesis.org by Marvin Lubenow.

See the findings from Dolni Vestonice : Jewellery, Pottery, Tools and other artifacts from Dolni Vestonice

And a more recent critcal article: Were Neanderthals human? Or were they ape-men? Creation Tips

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